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FFAI Reasoning and Arguments by
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# FFAI Reasoning and Arguments

## arguments

definition

axiom

theorem

proof

discussion

### scientific papers

definition

hypothesis (often based on mathematical or logical analysis)

experimental observation

analysis and conclusions

### philosophical dialectics

dialectics = of, pertaining to, or of the nature of logical argumentation.

resolution of disagreement, search for truth through rational discussion

tension between opposing forces, thesis, antithesis

can be an internal dialog, or a simulated dialog in a text

steps, state question / hypothesis, identify objections, present arguments in favor, weighing the evidence, replies to objections

since the 19th century, the term has been applied to increasingly odd philosophical ideas and ideologies

### philosophy and other arguments

definitions, what terms are being used and what do they mean?, what (experimental?) procedure to you use to determine whether objects conform to definitions?, are there explicit definitions?, do differences in definitions lead to conclusions?

premises, valid / invalid, assumptions / observations, preferences / values, sources / conclusions of other arguments

reasoning, kinds, logical, common forms, modus tollens, modus ponens, contradiction, often imitated in logical fallacies, logical fallacies, examples, statistical, rationality, Bayesian reasoning, Bayesian inference, Bayesian networks, simple statistical arguments, fuzzy, classical distiction, deductive, classical mathematical logic, modus ponens: if P then Q, P is true : Q is true, syllogism: if P then Q, if Q then R: if P then R, validity: the deduction is valid, but the premises (P) are not necessarily true, soundness: the deduction is valid AND the premises are true, "Your argument is valid." "Your argument is sound.", If you want to determine whether a deductive argument is valid, formalize it as logic inference., Watch out since some deductive arguments are only "approximately true", and in that case they are also Bayesian in nature., inductive, probabilistic reasoning, the sun has been rising for many years: the sun will likely rise tomorrow, if you want to know whether an inductive argument is valid, formalize it as a Bayesian argument

conclusions, should be explicitly stated, should be supported by reasoning, in papers, are often followed by a discussion ("what does this mean?")

## rhetoric

### good science / philosophy

factual correctness

derivation using logic

presentation using rhetoric

persuades you to believe in false facts or inferences through rhetoric

### tedious science / philosophy

factually and logically correct

## representations

### graphical representations

Classical logical diagrams

graphs

tree structures & mind maps

### textual structures

organization of an argument

paragraph structure

sections & subsections

Structure of Scientific papers

spoken arguments and rhetoric

## making and analyzing arguments

### why?

make a convincing argument

understand someone else's argument