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Asthma by Mind Map: Asthma
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Asthma

What is Asthma ?

Familial Disorder

100 genes identified

Hyper responsive airways

What increases risk of developing asthma?

Genetics

Age at onset

High levels of allergen exposure

Exposure to air pollution

Recurrent respiratory tract infections

Gastroesophageal re-flux disease (GERD)

Obesity

Early asthmatic response caused by allergen or irritant exposure

Immune activation

Interleukin-4 productions

IgE Production

Mast Cell Degranulation

Chemotactic Mediators, Cellular infiltration, Neutrophils, Lymphocytes, Eosinophils

Vasoactive Mediators, Vasodilation, Bronchospasm, Vascular congestion, Impaired Mucocilliary function, Thickening of airway walls, Increased contractile function of bronchial smooth muscle, Mucous secretion

Clinical Presentation

Reversible decreases in FEV1

Severe Broncho spasm

Hypoxemia

Acidosis (caused by a rise in PaCO2)

Lethal warning signs

PaCO2 > 70 mmHg

Absent breath sounds (silent chest)

Emergent treatment necessary

Hygiene Hyposthesis

Evaluation

History of Allergies

Recurrent episodes of wheezing

Excerise intolerance

Dyspnea and cough

Treatment

Rapid assessment of arterial blood gases

Search for underlying triggers

Mechanical ventilation if indicated

Management of Chronic symptoms

short acting beta agonists

inhaled corticosteroids

leukotriene antagonists for those not controlled on corticoseteroids

Avoidance of allergens and irritants

Develop Action plan for worsening symptoms

Mechanical ventillation intervention

Autonomic dysregulation

Release of toxic neuropeptides