Hitler's Rise and Consolidation of power

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Hitler's Rise and Consolidation of power by Mind Map: Hitler's Rise and Consolidation of power

1. Reorganisation of Nazi Party

1.1. started off with limited support in early 1920s

1.2. STRATEGIES:

1.3. 1) Increase membership of the Party

1.3.1. Hitler Youth

1.4. 2) Strengthen private armed forces to give impression of strength and discipline

1.5. 3) Using propaganda

2. Exploitation of fears of communism

2.1. Communism feared

2.1.1. FARMERS: afraid of collectivisation

2.1.2. BIG BIZ/INDUSTRIALISTS: fear assets will be taken over by communists

2.1.3. GERMANS: fear of unrest, violence as communists fought a lot with police during period of economic depression

2.2. 1928 elections

2.2.1. Communists 4x Nazi party

2.3. Hitler made vague promises

2.3.1. help these affected grps

2.3.2. actively tried to woo bizmen and industrialists to pour $, resources to help Nazis in their election campaign

2.3.3. used his private troops to disband communist meetings, strikes

3. Great Depression (1929)

3.1. stock market crash 1929 New York Wall Street

3.2. affected Germany A LOT

3.2.1. depended on US for loans & investments (got recalled)

3.2.2. Economic & social crisis in Germany

3.2.2.1. by 1932, 1/3 of working population unemployed

4. Hitler's Charisma & Oratorical Abilities

4.1. good at using scapegoating as a tactic

4.2. blamed "November Criminals" (weimar govt. for signing TOV), communists, Jews

4.3. Powerful speaker, incredible energy, appeared sincere

4.4. deliberately made speeches in beer halls -- people at ease, easily swayed to believe him

4.5. speeches made to address people's concerns, capitalising on their unhappiness

5. Nazi Ideology

5.1. set of broad, vague statements

5.1.1. mix of RIGHT + LEFT wing extremist views

5.1.1.1. THUS able to attract a wide following

5.1.1.2. NATIONAL

5.1.1.2.1. make Germany great again, abolish TOV, restore old German borders, unite Germany and Austria, territorial expansion for 'living space' for Germans

5.1.1.3. GERMAN

5.1.1.3.1. German speakers be part of the Reich (empire, idea of PURE "Aryan" race (master race)--true, superior, get rid of inferior groups: Jews, Slavs, POC, gypsies etc. Anti-semitism-- hostility, prejudice towards, discrimination against Jews.

5.1.1.4. SOCIALIST/WORKER

5.1.1.4.1. talked of equality, state control of the economy/businesses, increase in pensions for old age, job creation, solve agricultural problems

6. Weimar Constitution

6.1. unpopularity

6.1.1. opposition from

6.1.1.1. LEFT-wing extremists

6.1.1.1.1. value equality, communist rule, influence from Bolsheviks

6.1.1.2. Ordinary Germans

6.1.1.2.1. lost faith in Weimar Govt. for signing TOV, hated

6.1.1.3. RIGHT-wing extremists

6.1.1.3.1. value hierarchy, traditional, militaristic, nationalist, anti-TOV, strong Germany, territorial expansion, dictatorial style of govt.

6.2. Article 48

6.2.1. gave President absolute power in times of emergency - can dissolve parliament + rule unchallenged for 6 months + suspend civil liberties (freedom of speech) -- emergency not clearly defined

6.2.1.1. Eg. They exploited the Reichstag fire to secure President Hindenburg's approval for an emergency decree, popularly known as the Reichstag Fire Decree.

6.2.1.1.1. The decree was a key step in the establishment of the Nazi dictatorship.

6.2.1.2. Germany became a police state in which citizens enjoyed no guaranteed basic rights and the SS (Defence Corps), the elite guard of the Nazi state, wielded increasing authority through its control over the police.

6.3. system of proportional representation

6.3.1. fragmented parliament

6.3.1.1. created need for coalition govt.

6.3.1.1.1. 20 different govt. from 1919-1933

6.3.1.1.2. FIGHTING >:(

6.3.1.2. POLITICAL INSTABILITY

6.3.1.2.1. appear weak, evidently struggled to hold their power & authority

7. Hyperinflation (~1923)

7.1. keep up with reparation payments from TOV

7.1.1. Weimar Govt. printed money (marks)

7.1.1.1. devalue German currency

8. Events + Significant people

8.1. Night of Long Knives

8.1.1. PURGE of Nazi leaders by Adolf Hitler on June 30, 1934. Fearing that the paramilitary SA (Stormtroopers-- Sturmabteilung was the original paramilitary wing of the Nazi) had become too powerful, Hitler ordered his elite SS (Defence Corps) guards to murder the organization's leaders, including Ernst Röhm.

8.2. Heinrich Himmler

8.2.1. a leading member of the Nazi Party of Germany. Himmler formed the Einsatzgruppen (“mobile killing units”), built extermination camps. As overseer of the Nazi genocidal programs, Himmler directed the killing of some six million Jews, between 200,000 and 500,000 Romani people etc.

8.3. President Hindenburg's death

8.3.1. Hitler's rise to power was completed in August 1934 when President Hindenburg died. Hitler merged the Chancellorship with the Presidency and became the Führer of Germany. -- Führer, (“Leader”), title used by Adolf Hitler to define his role of ABSOLUTE authority

8.4. Joseph Goebbels

8.4.1. A key figure of Hitler's inner circle (Minister of propaganda and enlightenment), a fervent follower, Hitler selected to succeed him as chancellor. However, Goebbels only held the post for one day before committing suicide. Controlled Film, Radio, Theater, and the Press.

9. Hitler's skilfulness at making deals with politicians

9.1. FEB 1923

9.1.1. Hitler loses to Hindenburg

9.2. JULY 1923

9.2.1. Nazi won with best results. President Hindenburg does not trust Hitler, appoints Franz von Papen (conservative) as CHANCELLOR -- leads the Reichstag (parliament)

9.3. NOV 1923

9.3.1. Nazi vote % drops to 33%. Hindenburg appoints Kurt von Schleicher as Chancellor

9.4. JAN 1933

9.4.1. Hitler appointed as Chancellor in a coalition govt, after a DEAL with Hindenburg & other conservatives.

9.4.1.1. Promised to rally support for conservatives' policies, keep communists in control.

9.4.1.2. Hindenburg and other conservatives UNDERESIMATED him, thought they could control him.

9.4.1.2.1. Hitler waited patiently to manipulate Hindenburg, use Article 48 to take COMPLETE control