14 Learner-Centered Psychological Principles (1)

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14 Learner-Centered Psychological Principles (1) by Mind Map: 14 Learner-Centered  Psychological Principles (1)

1. Are divided among

1.1. Cognitive and metacognitive factors

1.1.1. Are Goals of a learning process The successful learner, overtime and with support and instructional guidance, can create meaningful, coherent representations of knowledge. Context of learning Learning is influenced by environmental factors, including culture, technology and instructional practices. Strategic Thinking the successful learner can create and use a repertoire of thinking and reasoning strategies to achieve complex learning goals. Thinking about Thinking Successful learners can reflect on how they think and learn, set reasonable learning or performances goals, select potentially appropriate learning strategies or methods, and monitor their progress towards these goals. Construction of Knowledge Knowledge widens and deepens as students continue to build links between new information and experiences and their existing knowledge base. Nature of the Learning Process The learning of complex subject matter is most effective when it is an international process of constructing meaning from information and experience.

1.2. Individual Differences

1.2.1. Are Individuals Difference in Learning Individuals are born with and develop their own capabilities and talents. Learning and Diversity The same basic principles of learning, motivation, and effective instruction apply to all learners. Standard and Assessment Assessment provides important information to both the learner and teacher at all stages of the learning process.

1.3. Motivational affective Factors

1.3.1. Are Intrinsic Motivation to Learn Intrinsic motivation is stimulated by tasks of optimal novelty and difficulty, relevant to personal interests, and providing for personal choice and control. Effects of Motivation and Effort Effort is another major indicator of motivation to learn. The acquisition of complex knowledge and skills demands the investment of considerable learner energy and strategic effort, along with persistence over time. Individuals learn best when material is appropriate to their developmental level and is presented in an enjoyable and interesting way.

1.4. Motivational and Emotional Influences in Learning

1.4.1. The rich internal world of thoughts, beliefs, goals, and expectation for success or failure can enhance or interfere with the learner’s quality of thinking and information processing.

1.5. Development Social Factors

1.5.1. Are Social Influences on Learning Developmental Influences on Learning Learning can be enhanced when the learner has an opportunity to interact and to collaborate with others on instructional tasks.