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Linguistics I, 2 by Mind Map: Linguistics I, 2
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Linguistics I, 2

Discourse Analysis / Pragmatics

Definition

etym. gr.: pragmatikos=acting

studies language in, context, meaning of words in interaction and dependence of assumptions, situational context, speaker and hearer share a situational context (physical copresence), meaning can be added by interacting (e.g. gestures), background knowledge context, cultural, discourse communities varying in size and sharing background information, interpersonal, between people knowing each other personal bacause of previous interaction, co-textual context, context of the text itself, grammatical cohesion, Reference/ to avoid repetition, Anaphora, refer back to an antecedent in the text e.g. this, them,..., Cataphora, refer forward to a referent, Ellipsis, Substitution, lexical cohesion, Repetition, Synonyms, Superordinates, general words, text/ Discourse, Conversation, three basic moves: IRF, initiation, response, follow-up, TRP: transition relevance place, point in conversation where a change of turn is possible, Politeness, Negative Politeness, need to be independent, distant form of politeness, indirect speech, Positive Politeness, need to be accepted as a member of a group, more intimate, Politeness Maxims, Tact, Generosity, Approbation, strategy to avoid disagreement/creates a feeling of solidarity towards the listener, eyample: "This food tastes...exotic.", Modesty, Agreement, Sympathy, Cooperative Principle, Paul Grice, Cooperative principle: be cooperative!, Gricean Maxims, quantity, say as little as possible, as much as required, quality, be honest, relation, be relevant, manner, be clear, Deixis, expressions used to point to, things, persons, locations, points in time, function, what utterances intend to do, Speech Acts, Direct, direct relationship between form and function, Declarative form with function of a statement, Interrogative form with function of a question, Imperative form with function of a request or order, Indirect, indirect relationship between form and function, Declarative form with function of request or order, Interrogative form with function of request, order or offer, Imperative form with function of statement or invitation, 5 Macro-Classes, Declarations, Representatives, Commissives, Directives, Expressives, Felicity conditions, rules to successful performance of speech acts, speaker and hearer share context, share language, have right intentions

Sociolinguistics

Gender

male, intention:, status, competition, independence, focus on oneself, advice, searching for solution, information, sharing information, facts, orders, direct orders, imperatives, conflicts, provocation of conflicts

female, intention:, support, request for confirmation and support, intimacy, focus on relationships, understanding, searching for sympathy, pity, feelings, sharing of emotions, elaborations, proposals, indirect orders, suggests, compromise, prevetion of conflicts

Language and Regional Variation

accent, phonetic aspects, different pronunciation

dialect, grammar, vocabulary, modern English dialects, North, Northern, Northeast, Lower North, Central North, Central Lancashire, Humberside, Central, West Central, Merseyside, Northwest Midlands, West Midlands, East Central, Central Midlands, Northeast Midlands, East Midlands, South, Southwest, Upper Southwest, Central Southwest, Lower Southwest, East, South Midlands, East Anglia, Home Counties

Standard, the official dialect which most people understand, normally the dialect of people in power, so called "proper" English

a language is a dialect with an army

Psycho-/Neurolinguistics

understanding language

using/producing language

relationship between language and the brain

specific areas of the brain related to language functions, click on arrow to see source, Broca's area, production of speech, Wernicke's area, language comprehension, Motor Cortex, physical articulation of speech (movement of the muscles), Arcuate fasciculus, connects Broca's and Wernicke's area

child language acquisition

language stages, birth, 'pre-language' stage, 6 weeks, cooing, 6 months, babbling, 8 months, intonation patterns, 10 months - 1 year, one-word stage, 1 1/2 years, two-word stage, 2 years, telegraphic speech, word inflections, 2 1/4 years, begin to pass through the three periods of speech production, use simple vocabulary, 5 years, basic language, 10 years, mature speech

specific table