Plato construction of another ideal state, Authoritarian state, He did not agree with Plato's ideology of republic.
An example would be on such abstract nouns such as:, Justice, courage, Love, piety
Through his questioning, Socrates, lead the citizens of athens to an aporia thus proving that they really did not really know what the abstract nouns would mean even though they thought they knew a lot about them.
The entire book is here, The book influenced who?
The rational part of the soul: seeks truth and is responsible for philosophical ideas., Plato claims that every other part of the soul wants to fulfil the desires of the rational part, as in a society, the lower two classes wish to fulfil the desires of the upper, ruling class., Modern issue: What's likelihood of this becoming a democratically elected individual? Who was the last bow tie wearing president?
The spirited part of the soul: desires honor and is responsible for out feelings., These people don't make the best leaders. For example, Saddam Hussein was a warrior, but not the best of leaders
The appetitive part of the soul: desires all sorts of things, mostly money (because money is used as a means to an end - to fulfill other desires).
These people don't make the best of leaders because creating a just society isn't the same as running a corporation.
Example: an apple is red and sweet, therefore it participates in the Forms of redness and sweetness.
The Sun was used in a simile as the child of the form Good. The sun was described as the entity that makes physical objects visible and generates life on earth. This compares to how the form of the Good makes other universals intelligible, and also gives being to all the other Forms (knowledge, truth, beauty, etc). In the end, the form of the Good is higher than being, Motivated the Stylites, Justice is accompanied by true pleasure and a just life is the most pleasant because it involves grasping the ultimate goods (harmony and order). Justice is good because it is connected to the greatest good, the Form of good, plus its connected to the just life, establishing this intimate relationship between them., Just and injust soul, Tyrants (an example of an injust soul) aim to fulfil the desires of the non-rational part which is where we have our desires. Injustice tortures a mans psyche, Philosopher King (an example of a just soul) is filled with the desire to fill the rational part which is our reasoning. A just soul is healthy, happy and untroubled, Three main character types. Only the philosopher king can judge that each type has their own form of pleasure because he has experience in all three, Money-loving, Honor-loving, Truth-loving, Plato banned poets from his city because they encourage us to indulge in emotion and makes us unjust. Poets appeal to the soul of other people by imitating injust inclinations, Myth of Er: just souls rewarded for one thousand lifetimes and unjust souls punished for same amount of time
The Forms include knowledge beauty (redness, goodness, sweetness) and truth.
Was politically active as a young intelectual man, had prospects in Athenian politics., After the Peloponnesian war, an oligarchy took place which Plato disliked., Socrates was his teacher, He was sentenced to death because he had close associations with people who turned against the law., Plato devoted himself to a lifetime of teaching, Made the first university called "The Academy", ., instructed metaphysics, politics, ethics, epistemology, and natural and mathematical sciences, Left the academy twice as he outlined the "Republic" and failed to convince Dionysus II, the king of Athens, to study philosophy and mathematics., Assumption of power between the 400 and the 30, Two Major upheavals turned him from politics, Four Hundred, Thirty
Almost had a philosophical king when Dion, the brother of the fathers heir, asked Plato to teach the heir, 2 political upheavals cast Greek values into question, Appearance of the Sophists. They focused on teaching rhetorical skills and believed in persuasiveness, which exploited uncertainty over traditional values. Believed that whether or not the action was right didn't matter. What was important was how it benefited you, which raised the question of the objective moral-what is right and wrong?, War between Athens and Sparta (431 to 404). Athens called for a new civic virtue, persuasive speaking >war skills, Philosophy originated from 6th century in Greek, island of Miletus, Poets used to address the values of the society. Ex) Hesiod encouraged good behavior for divine reward
Plato's dialogues are classed into early, middle and late periods., A typical early dialogue ends in a state of aporia, Socratic method of elenchus
Humans should engage in philosophical dialects., Virtue
He relies less on Elenchus
- Belief of life being split by a line with two equal halves., Visible Realm, The process of grasping with our senses (mind). Prisoners bound in the cave are limited to the visible aspects of life. Therefore imagination is their evidence (crutches)., Intelligible Realm, The stage of belief according to the allegory of the cave. Statues correspond to the real objects of our sensation. (Flowers, people, and trees) the prisoners begin to notice "forms" which is the next stage of the line., The Forms, Prisoners begin to notice that the sensible particulars and objects are imperfect copies. The prisoner is now at the stage of thought, he is able to reason about forms but is reliant on unproven assumptions.
The Philosopher Kings are the people who must come out of this "cave" (Allegory of the Cave) in order to understand reality.
The Philosopher Kings alone (once out of the "cave) are able to understand reality.
People are born to specialize into 3 different classes, Class of Producers - They only worry about their businesses and not about the politics. They must obey all rules., Class of warriors - Enforce and carry out all the orders of the rulers., Class of Rulers - They make the rules and laws for everybody to follow., Example - A farmer should stay as a farmer and not go into architecture
The Appetitive Soul, This soul materialistic and seeks all worldly happiness
The Spirited Soul, This soul seeks for all the types of Honor
The Rational Soul, This soul seeks only for truth and knowledge
Thrasymachus' ideas opposed to Socrates because Socrates believed that it is in the humans' interest to have laws and they are more than a mere convention
Just action is good in itself (Intrinsically good), It is good regardless of the advantages it confers, Plato wanted to prove that justice was a way of understanding the Form of Good and imitating it. By imitating the form we are leading our selves on for a calm, peaceful life.
We can see that it pays to be just when we look at tyrants; they act in unjust ways and always end up ruined. A just man is a serene man.
Only the Philosopher is capable of judging because he is able to experience all 3 types of pleasure from all the the 3 souls that are present in Man.
The sun allows us to see things around us (gain empirical knowledge) and is responsible for change and the growth of life.
The Form of Good makes these things knowledgeable and have form.
largest aspect of our tripartite (consisting of 3 parts) soul
necessary desires, such as the desire to eat to stay alive
unecessary desires, having 2 scoops of vanilla ice cream after every meal
unlawful desires, the desire to eat one's children, MUST be suppressed NO MATTER WHAT
important: Plato: "in a balanced man, appetite is controlled by reason and spirit."
one of plato's 3 society classes
responsibilities:, -defending the city from invasion, enforce the laws of the guardians/philosopher kings, ensure that the producers obey the laws of the guardians
2nd lowest grade of the cognitive activity*, *cognitive activity: understanding through thought processes, experiences, and the senses
the object of belief is visible and not mental
-a man in the state of belief: doesn't have access to "The Forms" (absolute idea behind the reality).
A man in the state of belief takes the sensible things as the most real, What are the links between this and life as a bat?, bats have a different way of sensing things around them, and therefore whether their reality is different than ours or not is the raised question
socrates' method of making the person he is talking to think that he/she is contradicting themselves.
result: this proves that the person socrates is talking to doesn't have knowledege about the topic
leads to aporia
an empirical question is a question that requires you to out into the world and investigate., example: what is the percentage of the kuwaiti population like chocolate ice cream?, Basically whenever you need statistical data, example of a non-empirical question: what is the square root of 25 plus 5?, This is true in all possible worlds
the philsophical branch which is concerned with knowledge, belief and thought, What is knowledge? How do we form beliefs based on evidence? Can we know anything?
plato: "it's the world beyond what we can physically see"
Plato's world of ideas, where the "idea" of eveything exists.
absolute, unchanged entities, such as: beauty, redness, sweetness, goodness
This is the only thing we can actually KNOW about
it is the source of intelligibility and our abiltity to know
responsible for the existence of all the other forms, plato: "it is just like the sun to the visible world" (see page 11)
it is the object of knowledge
highest point of cognitive activity (understanding) >>> become a philosopher king
one of plato's three society classes
responisbility: rule the city; in charge of law
chosen from the auxiliaries (warrior) class
aka philosopher kings
famous greek poet
wrote the poem "Works and Days", the poem shows the greek view of virtue and justice, Which version of justice was this? The Greeks had differing opinions.
lowest grade of the cognitive activity (does not give us a lot of true knowledge), taking images and shadows from works of art like poetry, movies, and TV and believing that these images are real
using reason to reach an end, Real life example
consists of 'The Forms" (Plato's World of Ideas), plato: "it is the only object of knowledge"
opposite to plato's visible realm
Greek for plato's "just city"
eternal, unchanging truth, intelligible realm, examples, I know 3 plus 4 is 7, because this is the case and it will never change, I cannot be sure that Meno is beautiful (people have different perceptions of beauty; this is why the validity of empiricism is debated)
philososphy branch that asks "what is there in the world"
aristotle: "the science of things transcending what is physical or natural", time, space, identity
lover of sights and sounds, socrates's idea of people who claim to be experts at everything that is beautiful, they don't realize that there is a "form of beauty" that causes everything beautiful in the visible realm, cannot be considered philosophers. they only have opinions, and they lack knowledge
metaphysical theories:, the theory of forms, the theory of the tripartite soul
all the truths other than the eternal, unchanging truths are associated with.
highest form of certainty in the visible realml
greek for "the desire to have more", such as running after money and power
Thrasymachus said in his book: "justice is nothing more than natural pleonexia
The third and lowest class of the three classes of society. This class includes all other professions other than warriors and rulers. Plato states that in a just society, the producers have no share in ruling the state, and only obey what the rulers decree.
Reason is an aspect of our tripartite soul, as Plato describes it. Reason desires truth and it is the source of all of our philosophic desires. The entire soul is ruled by reason, and it strives to fulfill reason's desires.
Teachers for hire that educated the wealthy men of Athens. They tended to share a disregard for the notion of objective truth and knowledge. They also disregarded the notion of objective moral truth, meaning they did not believe in "right" and "wrong.
These are all the objects we experience around us. They are "sensible" because we can sense them. They are "particular" because they are specific items that undergo change over time, rather than universal, unchanging ideas.
Every man must fulfil the role in which nature best fits them and not interfere with other things.
What they do best, such as those naturally suited to farm should farm, it will be the main source of political justice.
It is one part of the tripartite soul (see pg15).
Spirit is what allows one's soul to achieve honor and love.
The spirit part of the human beings helps keep the appetite in control, since one needs a balance of all three (spirit, rational and appetite).
The mental process of acquiring knowledge and understanding through thought; which only comes with unproven assumptions.
ruler of the kallipolis
since they are the only people who grasp "The Forms", they are the only ones who have full knowledge.
they are the most just people since they strive for truth more than anyone else
Highest form of knowledge., Involves the use of pure, abstract reason. Does not rely on images and unproven assumptions.
Every human soul is composed of three parts:, the heart (spirited), the mind (rational) and the stomach (appetite), Appetite – hungry after money Spirit – honor Rational – knowledge
There should be a balance between them to have individual justice.
Existence divided into two realms, Visible Realm, This is the realm that we are able to grasp with our senses. Comprised of the world we see around us, full of sensible particulars. Objects in the visible realm are not as real as those in the intelligible realm, and the objects in the visible realm are objects of opinion., Intelligible Realm