Natural Vegetation

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Natural Vegetation by Mind Map: Natural Vegetation

1. Tropical Monsoon Forest

1.1. Distribution

1.1.1. Latitude 10 degree N & 25 degree S of the equator

1.1.2. Climate Tropical monsoon climate Temp about 26 degree and rainfall about 1500mm/year Distinct wet (btw may to sept) and dry season (btw oct to april )

1.2. Example

1.2.1. South Aisa, Southern China, Northern Australia

1.3. Adaptation

1.3.1. Structure 3 Vertical Layers -Canopy -Understory -Undergrowth

1.3.2. Diversity -Fewer biodiversity as compared to tropical rainforest About 200 species in 1 hectare

1.3.3. Density -Denser during the wet season in the undergrowth story. -Sparse during the dry season.

1.3.4. Leaves -Deciduous -Waxy and drip tips Shed their leaves during season to minimize the loss of water through transpiration Waxy and drip tip to drain off excess rainwater . This will prevent bacteria from growing.

1.3.5. Flower and Fruits Flowering and fruiting during dry seasons

1.3.6. Bark and branches -Thick and coarse -Branches are found in the middle of the trunk Thick & coarse bark to protect the trunk from extreme heat and dryness

1.3.7. Roots Deep tap roots To tap water source deep under the ground during dry season. Buttress roots To provide support for the tall trees.

2. Coniferous Forest

2.1. Distribution

2.1.1. Climate Cool temperate continental climate Experience 4 seasons Low temp -40degree in winter about 21 degree in summer Rainfall around 300mm to 635mm/year usual in snow

2.1.2. Latitiude 60 & 70 degree north of the equator

2.2. Adaptation

2.2.1. Structure NO Distinct layer

2.2.2. Diversity -Pure stands of up to 3 species Common species are pine , spruce and fir

2.2.3. Density -Not dense -Sparse undergrowth Because not trees can grow in such harsh climate

2.2.4. Leaves -Evergreen -Needle like

2.2.5. Flowers and Fruits -No Fruits -Seeds and housed in cones

2.2.6. Bark and branches -Think bark -Slope flexible branches Thick bark: To protect from long , cold winter . Slope flexible branches : Snow can slide off easily and not break .

2.2.7. Roots -Shallow spreadind roots Able the trees to absorb water easily from soil surface where snow melt and absorb nutrient.

2.3. Examples

2.3.1. Alaska, Northern Canada, Northern USA

3. Tropical Rainforest

3.1. Example

3.1.1. Amazon Basin in Amarica, Congo Basin Africa, SEA-Malaysia

3.2. Adaptation

3.2.1. Structure Five Vertical Layers: -Emergent (30m-50m) -Canopy (15m-30m) -Understory (6m-15m) -Shrub (5m-6m) -Undergrowth (0m-5m)

3.2.2. Diversity -High biodiversity Due to high rainfall & temperature throughout the year . 750 species of trees & 1500 species of plants in 1 hectare Example : Keruing , Kapur , Meranti

3.2.3. Density -Abundant and dense vegetation growth -Sparse undergrowth Due to high rainfall and temperature

3.2.4. Leaves -Evergreen -Broad,Waxy with drip tips Evergreen : Due to high rainfall & temperature Broad , Waxy with drip tip : To maximize photosynthesis & drain off excess rainwater to prevent grow of bacteria .

3.2.5. Flower and fruits -Colourful and sweet smelling -Flowering and fruiting all year round Colourful & sweet smelling : To attract insects & animals for pollination & seed dispersal Flowering & fruiting : Due to high rainfall & temperature throughout the year

3.2.6. Bark and branches -Thin and smooth -Branches are found at the top 1/3 of the trunk Thin & smooth bark : No need to protect from extreme coldness or dryness Branches top 1/3 : To compete for sunlight as very little sunlight passes through canopy layer

3.2.7. Roots -Shallow buttress roots Buttress : To hold tall & heavy trees firm to the ground . Shallow : To get nutrients that are found at top 1/3 of the soil as humus decomposes at the top soil .

3.3. DIstribution

3.3.1. Latitude 10 degree north & south of equator

3.3.2. Climate Tropical equatorial climate High temp (27 degree ) & high Rainfall (1500mm/year)

4. Mangrove Forest

4.1. Distribution

4.1.1. Climate Tropical equatorial climate and Monsoon climate

4.1.2. Location Tropical region Coastal areas Inter-tidal zone

4.2. Example

4.2.1. Bruguiera, Rhizophora and avicennia

4.3. Adaptation

4.3.1. Structure 3 Horizontal zones -Coastal -Middle -Inland

4.3.2. Diversity Few species because not many trees and plants can adapted to the salty water 4 Types of plants : Avicennia Sonneratia Rhizophora Bruguiera

4.3.3. Density -Dense canopy -Sparse undergrowth Dense : Due to high rainfall and temperature Sparse : Due to interlocking canopy very little sunlight can reach the ground.

4.3.4. Leaves -Evergreen -Broad, leathery with drip tips Evergreen : Due to high rainfall & temperature Broad, Waxy & Drip tip : To maximize photosynthesis and drain off excess rainwater to prevent grow of bacteria 2 Types of leaves : 1) salt secretors (to secrete excess salt) 2) Ultrafiltrator (old leaves that store salt fall to removed excess salt)

4.3.5. Flowers and fruits -Colourful flowers -Buoyant and tube-like fruits Colourful : To attract insects to pollinate Buoyant : So that waves and current can carry them away .

4.3.6. Bark and Branches NO Adaptation

4.3.7. Roots 3 Types of roots: -Aerial Roots (breathing roots) -Prop Roots(anchor trees firmly to muddy gound ) -Kneed Roots