English Grammar

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English Grammar by Mind Map: English Grammar

1. Articles

1.1. Countable

1.1.1. Singular a/an Not a specific thing What kind of thing (peron) smth (smb) is What smb's job is First time talk about smth Once a week / three time a day / £1.5 a kilo etc. the Thinking of a specific thing Smth has already been mentioned It is clear in the situation which person or thing we mean There is only one of smth (unique) The before same (the same) Type of animal / machine / musical instrument etc. Names of people / names of places Names with Republic, Kingdom, States etc. Names of oceans, seas, rivers & canals The north (of Brazil) Names of most city streets / roads / parks etc. Names with of ... Zero article Noun + number Thinking of a general idea of places & what they are used for Names of people / names of places Mr / Mrs / Captain / Doctor etc. Northern Brazil my Cannot use alone

1.1.2. Plural Some A number of / a few of / a pair of Some but not all Talking about things in general Any Few Many Zero article Thinking of a general idea of thing & what it is used for What kind of thing (peron) smth (smb) is Smb has a long nose / nice face etc. Most people / most cars etc. the Thinking of a specific thing the + adjective (group of people) the + nationality adjective

1.2. Uncountable

1.2.1. a/an

1.2.2. a ... of

1.2.3. Some

1.2.4. Any

1.2.5. Little

1.2.6. Much

1.2.7. Usually uncountable News Not plural The news was depressing (not The news were) Information Advice Behaviour Damage Weather Work Progress Permission

2. Conditionals

2.1. Zero conditional

2.1.1. If + present simple present simple General or scientific facts and definitions

2.2. First conditional

2.2.1. If + present continuous / simple / perfect will / may / might / can / could / should / ought to / have to + infinitive Real or likely conditions in the present or future Results in the present and future Give instructions about real or likely situations

2.3. Second conditional

2.3.1. If + past simple / continuous / could (was / were able to) would / could (would be able to) / might + infinitive Impossible, unlikely or hypothetical conditions in the present or future Results in the present or future Advice Don't expect that smth will happen Imagine smth that will not happen

2.3.2. If ... would Ask somebody to do something I would be grateful if you would let me know your decision

2.4. Third conditional

2.4.1. If + past perfect / simple / continuous would / might / could / should + have + past particle Hypothetical conditions in the past Results in the past

2.5. Mixed conditional

2.5.1. If + past perfect / simple / continuous would + infinitive Hypothetical conditions in the past Results in the present

2.5.2. If + past simple / continuous would + have + past particle Hypothetical present condition Past result

3. Tenses

3.1. Present

3.1.1. Continuous Doing smth at or around the time of speaking Action is not complete In the middle of doing smth = I've started doing it and I haven't finished Not at the time of speaking Temporary situations Do things very often, perhaps too often, or more often than normal I'm always losing things Present for the future Have already decided and arranged to do smth Action just before you begin to do smth Indicators Additions Verbs Not used see hear smell taste feel Special Think Be going to

3.1.2. Simple Smth happens all the time or repeatedly Permanent situations Smth is true in general The earth goes round the sun Say how often we do things I get up at 8 o'clock every morning Present for the future Talk about timetables, programmes etc. (for public transport, cinemas etc.) Talk about people if their plans are fixed like a timetable The continuous is more usual for personal arrangements Indicators Additions Verbs Special Think Have

3.1.3. Perfect The action in the past has a result now Done smth recently, and the result is still active A connection with now (about the situation now, until now) Smth has been finished. Are interested in the result of the activity, not the activity itself Do not use the present perfect if the situation now is different Usually new information Police have arrested two men in connection with the robbery A short time ago Can also use the past simple Do not use the present perfect when you talk about a finished time Smth happened sooner than expected; speaker is expecting smth to happen 'Don't forget to pay your electricity bill.' 'I've already paid it.' Talk about a period of time that continues from the past until now Smth that began in the past and still continues now Have you ever eaten caviar? 'Have you read Hamlet?' 'No, I haven't read any of Shakespeare's plays.' Periods are not finished at the time of speaking I haven't seen Tom this morning. Have you? (it is still morning) The (first) time smth has happened Bill is phoning his girlfriend again. That's the third time he's phoned her this evening Indicators Additions Special Have got

3.1.4. Perfect continuous The activity is still happening or has just stopped A connection with now Thinking of the activity. lt does not matter whether it has been finished or not Actions repeated over a period of time Silvia is a very good t ennis player. She's been playing since she was eight Say how long (for something that is still happening) I'm learning Arabic, but I haven't been learning it very long Indicators Additions Not used Special Want & mean

3.2. Past

3.2.1. Continuous Were in the middle of doing smth at a certain time Had not finished doing Situation had already started before this time, but had not finished Use the past simple and the past continuous together to say that something happened in the middle of something else Matt phoned while we were having dinner Indicators Additions Not used know want

3.2.2. Simple Tells only about the past Did smth at some time in the past Doesn't tell whether has the result now or not Talk about a finished time in the past The situation now is different lt stopped raining for a while, but now it's raining again New or recent happenings I repaired the washing machine. lt's working OK now Things that are not recent or new Mozart was a composer. He wrote more than 600 pieces of music Continue to talk about new information I've burnt myself. How did you do that? Indicators Additions Question

3.2.3. Perfect Talk about something that happened in the past (the starting point of the story), then want to talk about things that happened before this time When Sarah arrived at the party, Paul had already gone home Karen didn't want to go to the cinema with us because she'd already seen the movie

3.2.4. Perfect continuous Smth had been happening for a period of time before something else happened When the boys came into the house, their clothes were dirty, their hair was untidy and one of them had a black eye. They'd been fighting Not used

3.3. Future

3.3.1. Continuous I will be in the middle of doing it This time next week I'll be on holiday. I'll be lying on the beach or swimming in the sea Talk about complete actions in the future Later in the programme, I'll be talking to the Minister of Education Similar to (be) going to

3.3.2. Simple Have just decided to do smth, announcing our decision A new idea Often use I think I'll ... and I don't think I'll ... Do not use will to talk about what you decided before Do not use will to say about arrangements Offering / suggesting to do something That bag looks heavy. I'll help you with it Shall I ... ? Shall we .. . ? to ask somebody's opinion Agreeing to do something Can you give Tim this book? Sure, I'll give it to him when I see him this afternoon Promising to do something Thanks for lending me the money. I'll pay you back on Friday Asking somebody to do something (Will you ... ?) Will you please turn the music down? I'm trying to concentrate Smb refuses to do smth (won't) I've tried to give her advice, but she won't listen. Predict a future happening or situation Know or believe will happen Indicators Additions

3.3.3. Perfect Smth will already be complete before a time in the future We're late. The film will already have started by the time we get to the cinema

4. Modals

5. Verbs & Verb Patterns

5.1. Forms

5.1.1. Finite The tense Simple Compound Examples am is are was were

5.1.2. Non-finite The infinitive (to) Present (to) Perfect The participle Present Past The gerund Examples (to) be (to) have been being been

5.2. Auxiliaries

5.2.1. Finites of do

5.2.2. Finites of be

5.2.3. Modal

5.2.4. Anomalous finite (AF) Finites of do Finites of be Finites of modal auxiliaries Functions The formation of the negative The formation of the interrogative The interrogative-negative Other examples of inversion Avoidance of repetition Tag questions Responses The emphatic affirmative Adverb position Not always anomalous Is restricted to those finites which combine with not in this way

5.2.5. Not always auxiliary

5.3. Defective

5.3.1. Some parts are missing

5.4. Irregular

5.5. Intransitive

5.5.1. Has a subject but no object

5.6. Transitive

5.6.1. Must have an object