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English Grammar by Mind Map: English Grammar
5.0 stars - 12 reviews range from 0 to 5

English Grammar



Singular, a/an, Not a specific thing, What kind of thing (peron) smth (smb) is, That's a nice table, Smb has a long nose / nice face etc., What smb's job is, First time talk about smth, Once a week / three time a day / £1.5 a kilo etc., the, Thinking of a specific thing, Обстоятельство, Причастный оборот, Smth has already been mentioned, It is clear in the situation which person or thing we mean, The light in this room, The station in this town, Usual doctor, Specific bank, There is only one of smth (unique), The before same (the same), Type of animal / machine / musical instrument etc., Have a piano vs. Play the piano, Names of people / names of places, Names with Republic, Kingdom, States etc., Names of oceans, seas, rivers & canals, The north (of Brazil), Names of most city streets / roads / parks etc., Names with of ..., The Bank of England, The Museum of Modern Art, Zero article, Noun + number, Platform 5, Room 126, Page 29, Thinking of a general idea of places & what they are used for, Hospital, University, College, Television, The station, The theatre, The radio, The television, The television set, Names of people / names of places, Mr / Mrs / Captain / Doctor etc., Mount, Lake, Northern Brazil, my, Cannot use alone

Plural, Some, A number of / a few of / a pair of, Some but not all, Talking about things in general, Any, Few, Many, Zero article, Thinking of a general idea of thing & what it is used for, All cars have wheels, Children learn from playing, What kind of thing (peron) smth (smb) is, One of many stars, Those are nice chairs, Smb has a long nose / nice face etc., Most people / most cars etc., the, Thinking of a specific thing, Обстоятельство, Причастный оборот, the + adjective (group of people), The young, The rich, The unemployed, the + nationality adjective, The English, A Frenchman, The Chinese, A Chinese, Mexicans, A Mexican



a ... of





Usually uncountable, News, Not plural, The news was depressing (not The news were), Information, Advice, Behaviour, Damage, Weather, Work, Progress, Permission


Zero conditional

If + present simple, present simple, General or scientific facts and definitions

First conditional

If + present continuous / simple / perfect, will / may / might / can / could / should / ought to / have to + infinitive, Real or likely conditions in the present or future, Results in the present and future, Give instructions about real or likely situations

Second conditional

If + past simple / continuous / could (was / were able to), would / could (would be able to) / might + infinitive, Impossible, unlikely or hypothetical conditions in the present or future, Results in the present or future, Advice, If + was / were, would, Don't expect that smth will happen, Imagine smth that will not happen

If ... would, Ask somebody to do something, I would be grateful if you would let me know your decision

Third conditional

If + past perfect / simple / continuous, would / might / could / should + have + past particle, Hypothetical conditions in the past, Results in the past

Mixed conditional

If + past perfect / simple / continuous, would + infinitive, Hypothetical conditions in the past, Results in the present

If + past simple / continuous, would + have + past particle, Hypothetical present condition, Past result



Continuous, Doing smth at or around the time of speaking, Action is not complete, She is on her way to work. She is driving to work, In the middle of doing smth = I've started doing it and I haven't finished, Not at the time of speaking, I'm reading a really good book at the moment, Temporary situations, Do things very often, perhaps too often, or more often than normal, I'm always losing things, Present for the future, Have already decided and arranged to do smth, More natural when we talk about personal arrangements, He is playing tennis on Monday afternoon, Be going to is also possible, What are you going to do on Saturday evening?, Do not use will, Action just before you begin to do smth, Especially with verbs of movement (go/come/leave etc.), 'Jess, are you ready yet?' 'Yes, I'm coming.', Indicators, Additions, today, this week, this year, Verbs, get, change, become, increase, rise, fall, grow, improve, begin, start, Not used, see, hear, smell, taste, feel, Special, Think, consider, I'm thinking about what happened. I often think about it, Be going to, Have already decided to do smth, intend to do smth, I'm just going to make a quick phone call. Can you wait for me?, Perhaps not arranged to do smth, 'Your shoes are dirty.' 'Yes, I know. I'm going to dean them.' (=I've decided to clean them, but I haven't arranged to clean them), Often the difference is very small and either form is possible, The situation now makes it clear that 'something is going to happen', Predict future happenings and situations, We know this from the situation now, The man isn't looking where he is going. He is going to walk into the wall, Look at those black clouds! lt's going to rain. (the clouds are there now)

Simple, Smth happens all the time or repeatedly, Permanent situations, I usually go away at weekends, Smth is true in general, The earth goes round the sun, Say how often we do things, I get up at 8 o'clock every morning, Present for the future, Talk about timetables, programmes etc. (for public transport, cinemas etc.), My train leaves at 11.30, so I need to be at the station by 11.15, Talk about people if their plans are fixed like a timetable, I start my new job on Monday, The continuous is more usual for personal arrangements, Indicators, Additions, every morning, often, three times a year, Verbs, promise, apologise, suggest, advise, insist, agree, refuse, Special, Think, believe / have an opinion, I think Mary is Canadian, but I'm not sure, Have, For possession, relationships, illnesses etc., No difference in meaning with have got, Lisa has two brothers. or Lisa's got two brothers, Cannot use continuous forms, For the past we use had (without got), Questions and negative sentences also, Did you have a car when you were living in Paris?, Lisa had long hair when she was a child, Questions and negative sentences, Do you have any questions?, Have you got any questions?, Have you any questions?, For many actions and experiences (but not have got), Can use continuous forms, We're having a great time, Sometimes I have(= eat) a sandwich for my lunch

Perfect, The action in the past has a result now, Done smth recently, and the result is still active, 'Where's your key?' 'I don't know. I've lost it' (he doesn't have his key now), A connection with now (about the situation now, until now), Smth has been finished. Are interested in the result of the activity, not the activity itself, Do not use the present perfect if the situation now is different, They've gone away. They'll be back on Friday BUT They went away, but I think they're back at home now, Usually new information, Police have arrested two men in connection with the robbery, A short time ago, Can also use the past simple, 'Are you hungry?' 'No, I've just had lunch.', Do not use the present perfect when you talk about a finished time, I got home late last night. I was very tired and went straight to bed, Smth happened sooner than expected; speaker is expecting smth to happen, 'Don't forget to pay your electricity bill.' 'I've already paid it.', Talk about a period of time that continues from the past until now, Smth that began in the past and still continues now, They have been married for 20 years, Have you ever eaten caviar?, 'Have you read Hamlet?' 'No, I haven't read any of Shakespeare's plays.', Periods are not finished at the time of speaking, I haven't seen Tom this morning. Have you? (it is still morning), The (first) time smth has happened, Bill is phoning his girlfriend again. That's the third time he's phoned her this evening, Indicators, Additions, just, already, Smth happened sooner than expected, yet, recently, in the Last few days, so far, since breakfast, today, this evening / week, this year, Special, Have got, For possession, relationships, illnesses etc., No difference in meaning with have, They have a new car. or They've got a new car, Cannot use continuous forms, For the past we use had (without got), Questions and negative sentences also, I didn't have my phone, so I couldn't call you, Lisa had long hair when she was a child, Questions and negative sentences, Does she have a car?, Has she got a car?, Has she a car?, For many actions and experiences

Perfect continuous, The activity is still happening or has just stopped, A connection with now, Is it raining? No, but the ground is wet. lt has been raining, Tim is still wat ching TV. He's been watching TV all day, Thinking of the activity. lt does not matter whether it has been finished or not, There is paint on Kate's clothes. She has been painting her bedroom, Actions repeated over a period of time, Silvia is a very good t ennis player. She's been playing since she was eight, Say how long (for something that is still happening), I'm learning Arabic, but I haven't been learning it very long, Indicators, Additions, how long, for, since, how long, Not used, Special, Want & mean, I've been meaning to phone Jane, but I keep forgetting


Continuous, Were in the middle of doing smth at a certain time, Had not finished doing, Started at 10 o'clock and finished at 11.30. So, at 10.30 they were playing tennis, Situation had already started before this time, but had not finished, Use the past simple and the past continuous together to say that something happened in the middle of something else, Matt phoned while we were having dinner, Indicators, Additions, when, while, Not used, know, want

Simple, Tells only about the past, Did smth at some time in the past, He lost his key, Doesn't tell whether has the result now or not, Now Tom has found his key. He has it now, Talk about a finished time in the past, The situation now is different, lt stopped raining for a while, but now it's raining again, New or recent happenings, I repaired the washing machine. lt's working OK now, Things that are not recent or new, Mozart was a composer. He wrote more than 600 pieces of music, Continue to talk about new information, I've burnt myself. How did you do that?, Indicators, Additions, yesterday, ten minutes ago, in 2005, from 2007 to 2010, when I was a child, last night, Question, When, What time

Perfect, Talk about something that happened in the past (the starting point of the story), then want to talk about things that happened before this time, When Sarah arrived at the party, Paul had already gone home, Karen didn't want to go to the cinema with us because she'd already seen the movie

Perfect continuous, Smth had been happening for a period of time before something else happened, When the boys came into the house, their clothes were dirty, their hair was untidy and one of them had a black eye. They'd been fighting, Not used


Continuous, I will be in the middle of doing it, This time next week I'll be on holiday. I'll be lying on the beach or swimming in the sea, Talk about complete actions in the future, Later in the programme, I'll be talking to the Minister of Education, Similar to (be) going to

Simple, Have just decided to do smth, announcing our decision, A new idea, Oh, I've left the door open. I'll go and shut it, Often use I think I'll ... and I don't think I'll ..., I feel a bit hungry. I think I'll have something to eat, Do not use will to talk about what you decided before, Are you working tomorrow?, Do not use will to say about arrangements, Diane is working next week, Offering / suggesting to do something, That bag looks heavy. I'll help you with it, Shall I ... ? Shall we .. . ? to ask somebody's opinion, I've got no money. What shall I do? (= What do you suggest?), Agreeing to do something, Can you give Tim this book? Sure, I'll give it to him when I see him this afternoon, Promising to do something, Thanks for lending me the money. I'll pay you back on Friday, Asking somebody to do something (Will you ... ?), Will you please turn the music down? I'm trying to concentrate, Smb refuses to do smth (won't), I've tried to give her advice, but she won't listen., Predict a future happening or situation, Know or believe will happen, Anna looks completely different now. You won't recognise her, Indicators, Additions, probably, (I'm) sure, (I) think, (I) don't think, I wonder

Perfect, Smth will already be complete before a time in the future, We're late. The film will already have started by the time we get to the cinema


Verbs & Verb Patterns


Finite, The tense, Simple, Present, Past, Compound, Present progressive, Past progressive, Future non-progressive, Future progressive, Present perfect non-progressive, Present perfect progressive, Past perfect non-progressive, Past perfect progressive, Future perfect non-progressive, Future perfect progressive, Examples, am, is, are, was, were

Non-finite, The infinitive, (to) Present, (to) Perfect, The participle, Present, Past, The gerund, Examples, (to) be, (to) have been, being, been


Finites of do

Finites of be


Anomalous finite (AF), Finites of do, Finites of be, Finites of modal auxiliaries, Functions, The formation of the negative, The formation of the interrogative, The interrogative-negative, Other examples of inversion, Avoidance of repetition, Tag questions, Responses, The emphatic affirmative, Adverb position, Not always anomalous, Is restricted to those finites which combine with not in this way

Not always auxiliary


Some parts are missing



Has a subject but no object


Must have an object