Old Major, Old Major represents both Marx combined with Lenin. Serving as the source of the ideals that the animals continue to uphold, despite the pigs led by Napoleon progressively warping them to their own selfish ends. Orwell significantly highlights how Old Major is concedes that his own life has been long and relatively free from the terrors he describes to the other animals. Creating a seemingly false brotherhood to unite the other animals to garner their support for his vision of Animal Farm.
Napoleon, Leader of the other pigs after ousting Snowball, a corrupt opportunist who rules over the other animals with fear and oppression. Does not partake in the struggle of the rebellion and formulation of Animal Farm's ideologies, rather Napoleon is only concerned with the power he exerts over the other animals, and taking the litter of puppies to raise as his own personal bodyguards. Represents Stalin as the oppressive ruler of Russia after ousting Trotsky and having him killed, and the puppies raised as vicious guard-dogs representing the KGB who were a private force at Stalin's command to remove any opposition to his rule.
Snowball, Challenges Napoleon for control over Animal Farm, he is intelligent and idealistic which proves his downfall, despite having the loyalty of the animals, his rhetoric proves no match for Napoleon brutality and and is chased out by the dogs Napoleon raise as his personal guard dogs. Represents Leon Trotsky who whilst considerably less oppressive as his counterpart Stalin, was not without moral flaws and his failure to remove Stalin from power proved his downfall, as Orwell stating throughout the text that we cannot eliminate government corruption by electing principled individuals to roles of power; as it is power itself that corrupts.
Squealer, Pig who is in charge of propaganda, Orwell using him to demonstrate how politicans used media to manipulate the people, specifically the communist parties use of propaganda to first inspire the people to revolt, and then once in power to maintain control and inspire citizens to take arms during the wars. Closely based on the Minister of Propaganda Vyacheslav Molotov who served under Stalin.
Minimus, Pig who writes the patriotic songs for Napoleon, incorporting him into the song "Animal Farm, Animal Farm" which replaces the "Beats of England" song Old Major passes on to the other animals.
The Piglets, Young pigs who represent those born into the socio-economic and political climate of post-Revolution Russia.
The Young Pigs, Complain about Napoleon's takeover of the farm who are than executed by Napoleon for their opposition to his power. Represent those who were violently oppressed and often killed by Stalin in his authoritive rule of Russia.
Mr Jones, Unkind and often abusive farmer who runs Animal Farm prior to Rebellion, would indulge himself with alcohol and food while animals almost starve. Overthrown by the animals. Represents Tsar Nicholas II who is ousted in the Russian Revolution.
Mr Frederick, Farmer of Pinchfield, stern but untrustworthy leader of neighbouring farm. Enemy to Pilkington. Represents Adolf Hitler and Nazi Germany in 1930 and 40's.
Mr Pilkington, Farmer of Foxwood, more gentlemen like farmer and enemy of Frederick. Representes the capitalist governments of England and the United States.
Mr Whymper, Human solicitor Napoleon hires to make contact with the human farmers like Frederick and Pilkington, this decision stuns the other animals.
Boxer, Tireless worker who supporters the pigs but is betrayed despite his loyalty. The loyal workers of whom supporter Lenin, Trotsky and Stalin who continue to suffer and are oppressed under Stalin's oppressive rule.
Clover, Like Boxer, a loyal supporter to the pigs, but suspected the pigs changing of commandments, but blamed herself for seemingly misreading them. Represented those who doubted the new communist leaders, but still followed willingly.
Mollie, The vain mare who represents the bourgeoise class that fled Russia a few years after the revolution.
Benjamin, Donkey who does not feel any inspiration or uplifting pride from the rebellion, believing life will remain unpleasant regardless of the previous human masters, or not the pigs. Represents those who comprehended the social and political changes that took place after the revolution.
Moses The Raven, Religion - Orwell uses Moses to demonstrate how communism, specifically under Stalin used religion to pacify the oppressed.
Muriel, Old goat who is well known to all the animals, and the only one besides Benjamin and Snowball who can read.
The Puppies, Taken by Napoleon from birth away from parents to be raised as his personal security force - The KGB
The Sheep, Blindly follow Napoleon
The Hens, First group to openly rebel against Napoleon
The Cows, The milk they produce is taken by the pigs who selfishly mix it amongst their food mash as a luxury the other animals are not provided with. Orwell uses them to signify the corrupt and selfish abuse of power by the Russian leaders while citizens continued to starve.
The Cat, Absent from the rebellion as well as undertaking any labour, has little interest in the politics of Animal Farm.
Corruption of Socialist Ideals in the Soviet Union
The Societal Tendency Toward Class Stratification
Danger of a Naïve Working Class
Old Major's skull publicly displayed parallel to Lenin's body displayed after his death.
Revolt against Farmer Jones allegory for Bolshevik October 1917 Revolution
Battle of Cowshed parallel to Allied Invasion of Russia
Pigs corruption as leaders allegory for the corruption of Russian Community Parties leaders, and Napoleon's rise to power like Stalins.
'Four Legs Good, Two Legs Bad' - Pigs eventually stand on two legs, change slogan to 'Two Legs Better', betrayal of original ideals.
- With Sheets
- To Excess
- Without Cause
But some animals are more equal than others.