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Atomic Structure by Mind Map: Atomic Structure
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Atomic Structure

Combines Chemically

Molecules

Molecules of compounds, Consists of atoms of different elements, Examples, Hydrochloric Acid, Methane, Ammonia, Carbon dioxide, Water

Molecules of elements, Consists of atoms of the same element, Examples, Nitrogen, Hydrogen, Oxygen, Chlorine, Phosphorus

Gains or loses electrons

Ions

Gain electrons, Usually non-metals, Anions, Ions are negatively charged

Lose electron, Cations, Usually a metal, Ions are positively charged

One atom consist of..

Electron

Hold a negative charge

mass of 1/1836

1/2000 the mass of a proton

Number of electron and neutron = mass number

Neutron

No charge

mass of 1

Proton

Holds a positive charge

mass of 1

Number of protons = atomic number

Isotopes

Atoms of same element

Same atomic number

Therefore they share the smae chemical properties, Due to same electonic configuration of both isotopes

Different mass numbers (number of neutrons different)

Different physical properties (Density, melting point and boiling point)

Electronic configuration

Electrons arranged around the nucles in the shells of an atom

Shells number 1,2,3 and so on

Each shell can occupy a certain number of electrons

Finding electron configuration

Find the proton number of the atom

Find out the numbers of electrons from there. (number of protons = number of electrons)

Arrange the electrons in shells. Electrons occupy the shell closest to the nucleus first

Electrons only start occupying a new shell when the previous one has been occupied

Valence Electrons

Electrons found in the outermost occupied shell of an atom

Outermost shell refers to the shell which is furthest from the nucleus

Nature of elements can be determined by the number of valence elctrons, 1-2 are metallic. The exception being aluminium with 3, 4-8 are generally non-metallic elements