MindMap of Learning Theories

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MindMap of Learning Theories by Mind Map: MindMap of Learning Theories

1. Theories of Learning

1.1. Cognitivism

1.1.1. Basic Principles

1.1.1.1. Created in response to behaviorism

1.1.1.2. Goes beyond the idea of the mind just being a blank slate

1.1.1.2.1. Prior knowledge is acknowledged

1.1.1.3. Memory systems are active

1.1.1.4. Organized processing of information

1.1.1.4.1. The mind as a computer

1.1.1.5. Schema/Scaffolding

1.1.1.6. Atkinson-Shiffrin Memory Model

1.1.1.6.1. Sensory Memory

1.1.1.6.2. Short Term Memory/Working Memory

1.1.1.6.3. Long Term Memory

1.1.1.7. Meaningful Effect

1.1.1.7.1. There has to be some sort of motivation for learning to occur

1.1.1.8. Seriality

1.1.1.9. Practice in order to retain information

1.1.1.9.1. Use of mneumonic devices

1.1.1.9.2. Mental Maps (like this MindMeister)

1.1.2. Key People

1.1.2.1. Piaget

1.1.2.1.1. Epistemological studies with children

1.1.2.1.2. Theory of cognitive development

1.1.2.1.3. Emphasized the existance of schemas

1.1.2.2. Vygotsky

1.1.2.2.1. Zone of Proximal Development

1.1.2.2.2. Stages in child development

1.1.2.3. Gagne

1.1.2.3.1. Different instructional conditions bring about different learning styles

1.1.2.3.2. 5 Categories of Learning

1.1.2.4. Bruner

1.1.2.4.1. Studied perception as being active

1.1.2.4.2. Published "A Study of Thinking"

1.1.3. Criticisms

1.1.3.1. Too focused on knowledge which is an abstract concept in of itself, so how can we measure this

1.1.3.2. Ignores the psychometer

1.1.4. Implications for Education

1.1.4.1. The organization of material matters a lot

1.1.4.1.1. Has to be user friendly for the students

1.1.4.1.2. Easy access

1.1.4.2. The aesthetic quality matters as well, easy for students to process what they are seeing

1.1.5. Cognitive Overload Theory

1.1.5.1. Processing Information can over or under load the working memory

1.1.5.2. Over stimulation

1.1.5.3. One way to deal with this is chunking information

1.1.6. Technologies

1.1.6.1. Prezi, Powerpoints

1.1.6.2. Animoto

1.1.6.3. ePortfolios

1.2. Behaviourism

1.2.1. Basic Principles

1.2.1.1. An environmental stimulus effects the brain which in turn effects learning

1.2.1.2. Practice makes Perfect motto

1.2.1.3. Stimulus Response

1.2.1.3.1. An outside force whether conditioned or unconditioned creates a response behavior

1.2.1.4. Consequences

1.2.1.4.1. For every action, there is a result whether positive or negative

1.2.1.5. Operant Conditioning

1.2.1.5.1. An individual's behaviours are shaped by its consequences

1.2.1.6. Negative Reinforcement

1.2.1.6.1. Encouraging a certain behaviour by taking away something undesirable

1.2.1.7. Modelling, Shaping and Cuing

1.2.1.7.1. Ways to encourage behaviourist learning

1.2.2. Key People

1.2.2.1. Thorndike

1.2.2.1.1. Led to the discovery of operant conditioning

1.2.2.1.2. Law of Effect

1.2.2.2. Skinner

1.2.2.2.1. Operant Conditioning Chamber

1.2.2.2.2. Innovated radical behaviourism

1.2.2.3. Gagne

1.2.2.3.1. "Conditions of Learning"

1.2.2.3.2. Different instructional conditions bring about different types of learning

1.2.2.4. Pavlov

1.2.2.4.1. Pavlov's Dog

1.2.2.4.2. Classical Conditioning

1.2.2.4.3. Behavior Modification

1.2.3. Criticisms

1.2.3.1. Learning is oversimplified, there is more to it than just repetition

1.2.3.2. Behaviours do not always dictate how someone learns

1.2.3.3. Prior knowledge that people have is not taken into account

1.2.4. Implications for Education

1.2.4.1. Primary mode of learning is through lectures

1.2.4.2. Direct instruction is valued instead of additional sources

1.2.4.3. Often teachers implement a reward system within the classroom

1.2.5. Technologies

1.2.5.1. iClickers

1.2.5.2. Mavis Beacon

1.2.5.2.1. Keyboard Skill Programs

1.2.5.3. Jeopardy

1.2.5.4. Computer Assisted Instruction/Assessment

1.3. Constructivism

1.3.1. Basic Principles

1.3.1.1. The mind is a network

1.3.1.1.1. Rhizome

1.3.1.2. Learning through building connections

1.3.1.3. Actively interacting with the environment

1.3.1.4. Begin with complex problems and teach the simpler skills needed to solve this problem

1.3.1.4.1. Problem based learning

1.3.1.4.2. Project based learning

1.3.1.5. Constructing knowledge from one's own experiences

1.3.1.6. The teacher acts as a facilitator

1.3.1.7. Authentic tasks

1.3.1.8. Learning through discovery

1.3.1.8.1. Active learning

1.3.1.8.2. Collaborative

1.3.1.8.3. Case based, experiences

1.3.2. Key People

1.3.2.1. Piaget

1.3.2.1.1. Building scaffolding through assosiations

1.3.2.1.2. Organizing knowledge into schemas based on prior experiences

1.3.2.2. Vygotsky

1.3.2.2.1. Experience driven stages in a child's learning

1.3.2.2.2. Zone of Proximal Development

1.3.3. Criticisms

1.3.3.1. Time consuming

1.3.3.1.1. Not worth the effort that you have to put into it in order for it to be effective

1.3.3.2. Mature Learners are required for it to work

1.3.3.3. Difficult to assess

1.3.3.4. Not much evidence that this style of teaching is effective

1.3.4. Implications for Education

1.3.4.1. Learning is most effective when students create something tangible

1.3.4.2. The teacher is in a guiding role in the classroom, students do a lot of the learning themselves

1.3.5. Technologies

1.3.5.1. Garage Band/Logic

1.3.5.1.1. Music Creation software

1.3.5.2. Lego Robotics

1.3.5.3. Video Games

2. Theories of Technology

2.1. Media Ecology

2.1.1. Basic Principles

2.1.1.1. Technology not only influences us, but is a part of nearly every part of our lives

2.1.1.2. Media and communication have an effect on human perception

2.1.1.3. Media acts as an extension of human senses

2.1.1.4. Technology influences society

2.1.2. Key People

2.1.2.1. McLuhan

2.1.2.1.1. Canadian philosopher of communication technology

2.1.2.1.2. The medium is the message

2.1.2.2. Quentin Fiore

2.1.2.2.1. Graphic designer that collaborated with McLuhan

2.1.2.2.2. Visual information effecting our learning

2.1.3. Criticisms

2.1.3.1. Impractical since not everyone will have access to these technologies or have a desire to be

2.1.3.2. Expensive and a commitment for the schools

2.1.4. Implications for Education

2.1.4.1. It is necessary to integrate technology in to the modern classroom since there are so many resources that are now indespensible

2.1.4.2. The classroom will from now on be in a technological age

2.1.4.2.1. Teachers will have to be well versed in the use of various different technologies

2.1.4.3. Students will come in with a prior knowledge of technology being used

2.1.5. Technologies

2.1.5.1. Mobile Devices

2.1.5.2. Desktop Computers

2.1.5.3. Smart Boards

2.2. SCOT

2.2.1. Basic Principles

2.2.1.1. Social Construction of Technology

2.2.1.2. Society influences technology instead of the other way around

2.2.1.3. Symmetry

2.2.1.4. Closure

2.2.1.5. A technology can't be understood without understanding it's place and role in society

2.2.2. Key People

2.2.2.1. Bijker

2.2.2.1.1. Theories of Technology Development

2.2.2.1.2. Co Author of The Social Construction of Technological Systems: New Directions in the Sociology and History of Technology

2.2.2.2. Pinch

2.2.2.2.1. Co Author of The Social Construction of Technological Systems: New Directions in the Sociology and History of Technology

2.2.2.2.2. Contributor to the study of sound culture

2.2.3. Criticisms

2.2.3.1. Technology dictates too much of our lives for it not to be an influencing factor

2.2.4. Implications for Education

2.2.4.1. Students will have to be encouraged to find new uses for technology

2.2.4.2. Exploration of the possibilities that technology offers to use

2.2.5. Technologies

2.2.5.1. Music Creation Software

2.2.5.1.1. Audacity

2.2.5.1.2. Logic

3. TPACK

3.1. Technological Knowledge

3.1.1. How to use digital technologies

3.1.2. Use of laptops, cell phones, tablets etc

3.1.3. Beyond just digital literacy

3.1.4. Ability to change the purpose of existing technologies

3.2. Content Knowledge

3.2.1. A thorough higher level understanding of content material

3.2.2. Knowledge of concepts and theories

3.2.3. Conceptual frameworks

3.2.4. Accepted ways of developing technology

3.3. Pedagogical Knowledge

3.3.1. Knowing how students learn

3.3.2. Different approaches to teaching

3.3.3. Methods of Assessment

3.3.4. Knowledge of different existing theories

3.3.5. Basically knowing how to teach for the situation

3.4. Intersections

3.4.1. Technological/Pedagogical Knowlege

3.4.1.1. How to teach using technologies

3.4.1.2. The affordances given by technologies

3.4.1.3. An example would be online collaboration tools

3.4.1.3.1. Social learning for geographically separated learners

3.4.2. Content/Pedagogical Knowledge

3.4.2.1. How to combine content and pedagogy effectively

3.4.2.2. Making a subject understandable to learners

3.4.2.3. Knowing what makes a subject easy or difficult to understand

3.4.2.4. Acknowledging misconceptions and preconceptions

3.4.2.4.1. Knowing how to deal with these when they appear

3.4.3. Technological/Content Knowledge

3.4.3.1. Knowing how to use technology to supplement and teach content

3.4.3.2. New ways of teaching content to learners

3.4.4. Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge

3.4.4.1. The knowledge of the interplay between the three types of knowledge

3.4.4.2. How to incorporate these into different lesssons

3.4.4.3. Complexity in the relationship between these three ideas, the student and the teacher

3.5. Context

3.5.1. Teachers are limited to what they can do in their environment

3.5.2. Time, training, and the nature of assessment all impact the use of technology

3.6. Other Key Ideas

3.6.1. The use of a Venn diagrams displays the relationships between these different knowledges

3.6.2. Can be used as an organizing frame

3.6.3. Involves both new technologies and how to use previously existing technologies in new ways

4. Philosophies of Teachnology

4.1. A teacher's views on how technology can be used in the classroom

4.2. How to incorporate technology into a traditional classroom environment

4.3. Often relates to the idea of scaffolding and building off of prior knowledge

4.4. Asking students to expand literacy through the use of technology

4.5. Technology as a bridge

4.6. Technology use in the classroom

4.7. The art science and skill of technology use

4.8. Teamwork

4.8.1. Knowledge Sharing

4.9. Something every teacher should think about and explore