Laughter Out of Place

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Laughter Out of Place by Mind Map: Laughter Out of Place

1. Chapter 1 Laughter out of Place

1.1. Rio De Janerio

1.1.1. Goldstein arrived in Rio in 1990

1.1.2. Rio is a juxtaposition of wealthy and poor

1.1.2.1. Rio is a "city of contrasts. Poverty, inequality, racism and violence are everywhere." Goldstein Pg. 27

1.1.3. Carnival

1.1.3.1. "Carnivals meanings are multiple and shifting with regard to community and historical context." Goldstein Pg. 33

1.2. Humor

1.2.1. Goldstein observed a level of humor in the favelas she observed

1.2.1.1. Humor is a "running commentary about political and economic structures that made up the context with in which the people of Rio's shantytowns made their lives" Goldstein Pg. 2

1.3. Gloria and her Family

1.3.1. Gloria is a resident of a favela and has fourteen children

1.4. Donna M. Goldstein

1.4.1. Education

1.4.1.1. Cornell University

1.4.1.1.1. Undergrad Latin Americanist Scholar in Training

1.4.1.2. University of California-Berkeley

1.4.1.2.1. Anthropology Graduate Degree

2. Chapter 2 The Aesthetics of Domination

2.1. Domestic Work

2.1.1. Workers didn't make enough to support themselves

2.1.2. Middle class= can employ a domestic worker

2.1.2.1. "Servants stood as a second difference between typical middle-class and working class budgets" Goldstein Pg. 67

2.1.3. Workers have linguistic limitations

2.2. Gloria and Domestic Work

2.2.1. Gloria worked fourteen hour days

2.2.2. The transportation cut into her time and earnings from the day

2.2.3. Faxineira

2.3. Public School

2.3.1. Public schools were okay, but not great. Poor people didn't have the option of going to school

3. Chapter 3 Color-Blind Erotic Democracies....

3.1. Race vs. Class

3.1.1. Skin color determines Class

3.1.1.1. Eliana is seen with light-skinned grandson, people assume she is nanny of the child

3.1.1.2. African traits are shunned

3.1.2. Living in Favela is a class marker

3.1.3. Low income, mixed race, and black women are at the bottom of class hierachies

3.1.3.1. Low income women could consider using sexuality for help from coroa

3.1.4. "Brazil is conceptualized as a class problem rather than a race problem." Goldstein Pg. 105

4. Chapter 4 No Time for Childhood

4.1. Children of domestic workerss don't aspire to do the same thing as their parents

4.1.1. The shantytowns are very close to the nicer cities, leaving children to want more out of their lives

4.2. Street Children

4.2.1. Children work for gangs and do the 'dirty work' for them

4.3. FUNABEM

4.4. Pedro Paulo

4.4.1. Gloria's first born son

4.4.1.1. Pedro disapproved of Gloria's life, Gloria disapproved of her son's life

4.4.1.1.1. Gloria "tried to understand why her firstborn had turned out to be a marginal" Goldstein Pg. 142

4.4.2. 15 years in prison

4.4.3. "Men like Pedro felt they were cheated out of their own future. "Goldstein Pg 143

5. Chapter 5 State Terror, Gangs....

5.1. Crime and Violence

5.1.1. favelas are known to harbor thieves and drug trade

5.1.2. Class and racial antagonism

5.1.3. According to the residents in the 1990's violence was becoming unpredictable

5.2. Gangs and Drugs

5.2.1. "Middle class and elite drug consumption and the international drug trade ultimately fuel gang activity." Goldstein Pg. 179

5.2.2. Gangs offered solidarity and belonging to young men.

5.2.3. Some of the favelas could be described as internal war zones

5.2.4. Drug chiefs were important local figures

5.2.5. Gangs provided local-level protection and were local power brokers

5.2.6. Police often worked hand-in-hand with the local gangs

5.2.7. Gangs often got rid of people that police couldn't

6. Chapter 6 Partial Truths...

6.1. Sexuality

6.1.1. Carnivalization of Desire

6.1.2. Sexuality is central (social, cultural level)

6.1.3. A lot of sexual joking and teasing

6.1.3.1. Elderly men and women engage in sexual talk, banter, and joking

6.1.4. objectification of women's bodies

6.1.4.1. Public Flirtation

6.1.4.2. Men are more concerned with buttocks than breasts

6.1.5. Feminist literature on sexuality is considered "sex-negative"

6.1.6. Comer & Dar

6.1.6.1. Men often refer to "Eating women" or Comer when referring to having them sexually

6.1.6.2. Women are said to "give themselves" to men or Dar

6.1.7. Considered unhealthy for young men to go too long without sex

6.1.8. Many women have traumatic stories about losing their virginity

6.1.9. Sacanagem

6.1.10. Not open to talking about homosexual acts or infidelity on a woman's part

6.1.10.1. Homens

6.1.10.1.1. Manlier man in a homosexual relationship

6.1.10.1.2. are said to be able to retain their social status

6.1.10.2. Bichas

6.1.10.2.1. More feminine man in homosexual relationship

6.1.10.2.2. are said to lose their status

7. Chapter 7 What's so funny about Rape?

7.1. Story of Marilia

7.1.1. Marilia is a woman who was married to her husband at an early age and tries to kill him with rat poison to protect herself from his abusive behavior

7.2. Gloria's Family's Story

7.2.1. Gloria's daughter and niece, 14 & 15 yo were raped by male intruders.

7.2.1.1. Anita claims to get pregnant from one of the rapists to cover up the fact that she wasn't a virgin at the time, and the father was really her boyfriend, having already been pregnant at the time of the rape

7.3. Rape

7.3.1. Young women who weren't virgins or older women who were not in committed relationships were seen as not honest and usually don't win rape cases

7.3.1.1. Because of this it is unlikely that rape cases are reported

7.3.2. Women in shantytowns are sometimes left with no protection against rap

7.3.3. Rape is known as a serious offense however in the shantytowns and sometimes can cause gang wars