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Ethics Mind Map by Mind Map: Ethics Mind Map

1. Moral Guidance to Ethical Decisions

1.1. Anishinaabe 7 Grandfather Teachings

1.1.1. Creator told the 7 Grandfather spirits to watch over the Anishinaabe people A messenger was sent down to find someone to communicate their values, the messenger found a baby in his search The Grandfathers instructed the messenger to take the baby around the earth for 7 years to learn the Anishinaabe way of life.

1.1.2. The purpose of these teachings is to guide Anishinaabe to living a good life with peace and no conflict

1.1.3. The teachings are: love, respect bravery, honesty, truth, humility and wisdom Love (Zaagi’idiwin) is represented by the eagle, who has the strength to carry all the teachings To know love is to know peace View your inner-self from the perspective of all teachings. This is to know love and to love yourself truly. Then you will be at peace with yourself, the balance of life, all things and also with the creator. Respect (Mnaadendimowin) is represented by the buffalo, who gives every part of himself to sustain the human way of life To honor all creation is to have respect. Do not waste and be mindful of the balance of all living things. Share and give away what you do not need. Bravery (Zoongide’ewin) is represented by the bear, who shows strength and courage while facing their fears To face life with courage is to know bravery To know yourself and be confident in who you are Honesty (Gwayakwaadiziwin) is represented by the raven or sabe as they accept themselves and their gifts To walk through life with integrity is to know honesty Be honest and accept who you are. Do not seek to deceive yourself or others. Truth (Debwewin) is represented by the turtle, who was here for the creation of life and carries those teachings on his back Show honor and sincerity in all that you say and do. Understand your place in this life and apply that understanding in the way that you walk. Be true to yourself and all other things. Humility (Dabasendiziwin) is represented by the wolf, who lives life for their pack Understanding you are a sacred part of creation is crucial to humility, living selflessly with balance between yourself and things Wisdom (Nibwaakaawin) is represented by the beaver because he uses his natural gifts for survival Recognize your differences and those of others in a kind and respectful way. Respect your own limitations and those of all of your surroundings.

1.2. 7 Laws of Noah

1.2.1. 7 laws that all humans must keep to maintain peace and harmony a link between Judihism and Christianity

1.2.2. The seven laws are as follows Do not profane gods oneness in anyway Acknowledge their is a god who cares what we do on earth Do not curse creator No matter the circumstances, do not take anger out on your creator Do not murder To kill a human life is to kill a universe Do not eat a limb of a still-living animal Respect all of gods creatures, especially as intelligent beings Do not steal The benefits you receive must not be at the expense of someone else Harness the human libido The family unit is the foundation of human society. Sexuality is the fountain of life and so nothing is more holy than the sexual act. Establish and ensure justice Every act of justice restores harmony to the world

1.3. Ten Comandments (Christianity)

1.3.1. Moses, who led a group of escaped slaves was praying to god for guidance and was given the comandments in return

1.3.2. The Comandments establish the rules for worship and christianity “Thou shalt have no other gods before me.” If you put someone before god, it becomes harder for him to bless you “Thou shalt not make unto thee any graven image.” "Graven Images" are anything you put above god (ex. cars, people, clothes, etc) God will never go away, and that’s why it’s best for us to only worship Him “Thou shalt not take the name of the Lord thy God in vain.” Do not use gods name as a swear word “Remember the sabbath day, to keep it holy.” Honouring and worshiping god on a holy day (Sunday) “Honour thy father and thy mother.” “Thou shalt not kill.” “Thou shalt not commit adultery.” Honour the commitments of a relationship “Thou shalt not steal.” “Thou shalt not bear false witness against thy neighbour.” Do not lie “Thou shalt not covet.” Do not be overly jealous

1.4. Ten Comandments (Islam)

1.4.1. Similarily to the Christian 10 Comandments, Allah revealed them to Moses The commandments prohibit the major sins of impurity, disrespect for parents, murder, theft, adultery, false witness, and envy.

1.4.2. The comandments are the essence of the Torah, which are taught to children from a young age

1.5. The Golden Rule

1.5.1. A long understood rule of law, which in simple terms is, "in everything, do to others what you would have them do to you" Treat others the way you want to be treated Does not distinguish the good or bad ways someone might like to be treated

1.5.2. This ethical rule is not particular to one religon, rather is a universial term

2. Classical Ethical Philosphies

2.1. Plato's View

2.1.1. Believes the body is made up of 3 different parts: the physical body, the spirit and intellect. In the healthy soul the 3 parts are balanced. In the unhealthy soul the components are unbalanced. Lack of control over any of these elements leads to bad decisions and unethical behaviour.

2.1.2. He thought of ethics more rationally

2.1.3. Plato believed we must be moral in order to be happy which rests on the 4 cardinal virtues: wisdom, courage, moderation and justice. A wise person uses their mind to understand and apply morals to their daily life. A couragous person faces adversity morally Understanding want in moderation, wanting good things for a bad reason or bad things at all. A just person has a healthy soul and overall good character.

2.2. Aristotle's View

2.2.1. Believed ethics can be determined by looking at everyday behaviour of different people. We become ethical individuals from the knowledge we gain and habits we develop over time Teachers and parents help us learn what is right and wrong We become ethical through habits like helping the elderly Hapiness is the result of living an ethical life He found that moderation also leads to hapiness Too much of anything (food or work) is not healthy

2.3. Stoicism

2.3.1. Was a highly influential document and philosophy for the Roman empire. Created by Zeno

2.3.2. Preached that all human actions are predetermined the only thing humans can control is their reaction to the events of their life

2.4. Epicureanism

2.4.1. Created by Epicurus

2.4.2. Argued that the purpose of life was to live for pleasure Believed there was no overall plan for the world or for people so people must enjoy life while they can Excess drinking or eating was not suggested, rather to live in moderation Long term searches only resulted in pain

2.4.3. Critics argue that many people do not act in ways that provide pleasure Many people sacrifice themselves for others, how does that support Epicureanism

3. Eastern Ethical Philosophies

3.1. Hindu Ethics

3.1.1. Orally preserved teachings called Vedas hold the idea of the ultimate reality and the goal of life Believes that all things are eternal and that everyone is eternal through reincarnation Our current state is meant to be a result of our actions If we live well, we are released after death, if you do not, you are reborn again

3.1.2. It is possible to learn how to live a good life through meditation, yoga and study Each person has a Dharma, which describes their duty to god Dharma changes as you get older, but if you follow it you will be released from the cycle of rebirth This cycle canot be imposed, rather is realized and voluntarily taken on

3.1.3. Hinduism is the name provided to the religous practices called Vaidika

3.2. Buddhism's Eight Fold Path

3.2.1. Believed to be a formation to a path to enlightenment Step 1: Right View To remember our actions have concequences and to live in a way that causes no harm Step 2: Right Intention Fostering moment to moment mindfulness Step 3: Right Speech To not speak in harmful ways, refrain from lying and abusive language Step 4: Right Action To refrain from harming others phsically, rather to support life Step 5: Right Livelihood Working and living ethically, without stealing or being dishonest Step 6: Right Effort Nurturing benefitcial behaviour Step 7: Right Mindfulness Live in a way that prevents the development of harmful behaviours Step 8: Right Concentration With all the other steps complete you enter a state of mindfulness and meditation

3.2.2. The paths are numbered however, they are not meant to be done in steps rather in support of eachother.

3.2.3. Each step fills one of three categories: wisdom, ethical conduct and mental discipline These are known as the Threefold Training. These trainings are seen as essential for attaining liberation from the cycle of suffering. The cycle of suffering is called Saṃsāra, which is the belief that all living things go through births and rebirths

3.3. Confucius

3.3.1. Created by a Chinese poet and teacher named Confucius. He spent his life teaching people on his ethical and social themes Overall his idea of ethics was to outline a structure for family relations His teachings were very popular throughout the 6th and 5th century BCE even today in many eastern places

3.3.2. He believed their are 5 ways that people should act to complete proper social behaviour Fathers should be kind while sons should be obedient and respectful Older brothers should be gentle however there should be humility to the younger brother Husbands should be righteous while wives are obedient Elders should have consideration and deference among juniors Rulers should be benevolent and subjects should be loyal

3.3.3. Members are motivated by social and political concerns believed that the cultivation of character and intergrity was crucial for those in public life

4. Economic Philosophies

4.1. Marxism

4.1.1. Developed by Karl Marx in the mid 19th century Marx drafted the original "Communist Manifesto"

4.1.2. He believed that capitalist society has two classes: the bourgeoisie and the proletariat The Bourgeoisie controls production and makes money through owning businesses The Proletariat is the working class who are employed by the bourgeoisie He believed that eventually the proletariat would protest against the bourgeoisie, sparking a class war

4.1.3. The original theory has chaned overtime, being used by different nations such as the Soviet Union It lays out the theory of class struggle and revolution

4.2. Communism

4.2.1. An idea based on equality and providing for all within the 'motherland'. Cuba is still a communist country.

4.2.2. Communism outright rejects the concept of private ownership Believes that the people collectively own and control the production and distribution of all goods and services.

4.2.3. very similar to Marxism

4.3. Anarchism

4.3.1. Rebellion against the laws and rules of the land. Self determination and individualization is key.

4.3.2. Believes that the government is harmful anarchists urge their followers to protest against government/rulers

4.3.3. The first anarchist was Pierre-Joseph Proudhon, a socialist, writer and politician