chap 10: managing employee mitivation and performance

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chap 10: managing employee mitivation and performance by Mind Map: chap 10: managing employee mitivation and performance

1. Process Perspectives on Motivation

1.1. Approaches to motivation that focus on why people choose certain behavioral options to satisfy their needs and how they evaluate their satisfaction after they have attained those goals

2. Expectancy Theory

2.1. Suggests that motivation depends on two things–how much we want something and how likely we think we are to get it.

3. Expectancy Theory

3.1. Effort-to-Performance Expectancy

3.2. Performance-to-Outcome Expectancy

3.3. Valences

3.4. Outcomes (Consequences)

3.5. The Porter-Lawler Extension

4. Equity Theory

4.1. Feeling equitably rewarded: Maintain performance and accept comparison as fair estimate.

4.2. Feeling under-rewarded—reduce inequity by: Changing inputs by trying harder or slacking off. Changing outcomes by demanding a raise. Distorting ratios by altering perceptions of self or of others. Leaving situation by quitting the job. Choosing another object person.

4.3. Feeling over-rewarded: Increase or decrease inputs. Distort ratios by rationalizing. Help the object person gain more outcomes.

5. Goal-Setting Theory

6. Reinforcement Perspectives on Motivation

7. Providing Reinforcement in Organizations

7.1. Fixed-interval schedule Variable-interval schedule Fixed-ratio schedule Variable-ratio schedule

8. Using Reward Systems to Motivate Performance

8.1. Higher-level performance-based rewards motivate employees to work harder. Rewards help align employee self-interest with organizational goals. Rewards foster increased retention and citizenship.

9. Alternative Forms of Working Arrangements

9.1. Variable work schedules

9.2. Flexible work schedules

9.3. Job sharing

9.4. Telecommuting

10. Individual Human Needs (McClelland)

10.1. Need for achievement The desire to accomplish a goal or task more effectively than in the past

10.2. Need for affiliation The desire for human companionship and acceptance

10.3. Need for power The desire to be influential in a group and to control one’s environment

11. The Nature of Motivation

11.1. The set of forces that cause people to behave in certain ways

12. Content Perspectives on Motivation

12.1. Content perspectives Approach to motivation that tries to answer the question “What factors motivate people?” Focus on needs and need deficiencies of individuals

12.2. Content perspectives of motivation Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Herzberg’s Two-Factor Theory McClelland’s Achievement, Power, and Affiliation Needs

13. The Needs Hierarchy Approach

13.1. Maslow’s hierarchy of needs - Physiological - Attending to basic survival and biological functions. - Security Seeking a safe physical and emotional environment. - Belongingness Experiencing love and affection. - Esteem Having a positive self-image/self-respect and recognition and respect from others. - Self-actualization Realizing one’s potential for personal growth and development.

14. The Needs Hierarchy Approach

15. The Two-Factor Theory (Herzberg)

15.1. Two-factor theory of motivation Suggests that people’s satisfaction and dissatisfaction are influenced by two independent sets of factors–motivation factors and hygiene factors

16. Kinds of Reinforcement in Organizations

16.1. Positive reinforcement

16.2. Avoidance

16.3. Punishment

16.4. Extinction

17. Popular Motivational Strategies

17.1. Empowerment

17.2. Participation