GENHB, Hormone Replacement Therapy Validation

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GENHB, Hormone Replacement Therapy Validation by Mind Map: GENHB, Hormone Replacement Therapy Validation

1. Section 2: menstruation

1.1. Focus Question – If women only release one egg cell per month, why do you think they have an average total of 400,000?

1.1.1. Women have an average total of 400,000 egg cells because only a fraction of these eggs will be used over a woman's reproductive lifespan. The high number ensures that there are enough egg cells available to be released each month from puberty until menopause. The rest will naturally degenerate and be reabsorbed over time (atresia). This surplus ensures that the reproductive system can function properly and maintain fertility over many years.

1.2. Focus Question -- Briefly outline the hormonal cycle that triggers menstruation.

1.2.1. Hormone Production: The pituitary gland in the brain releases follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinising hormone (LH) into the bloodstream. Follicle Stimulation: FSH encourages the follicles in the ovaries to grow and mature, which in turn produces estrogen. Estrogen Surge: Rising estrogen levels inhibit the production of FSH and stimulate the production of more LH. Ovulation: A surge in LH causes the most mature egg to be released from the ovary, a process called ovulation. Progesterone Production: The empty follicle (now called the corpus luteum) produces progesterone, which prepares the uterine lining for potential pregnancy. Menstruation: If fertilization does not occur, progesterone and estrogen levels drop, leading to the shedding of the uterine lining, which is expelled from the body during the menstrual period.

1.3. Focus Question -- Why do you think women's periods vary so much?

1.3.1. Due to a range of factors, including individual hormonal levels, genetic differences, lifestyle factors, health conditions, and environmental influences. Each woman's body is unique, leading to differences in the timing of menstrual cycles, the length and intensity of periods, and the age at which menstruation begins and ends. Variations can be influenced by stress, diet, exercise, medical conditions, and other personal and external factors, making each woman's menstrual experience distinct.

2. Section 1: hormones

2.1. Focus Question – Why do you think hormones become so prominent during puberty?

2.1.1. Hormones become prominent during puberty because they are crucial in driving the significant physical and physiological changes that occur during this developmental stage. Puberty is marked by a surge in the production of sex hormones, such as testosterone in males and estrogen in females, which initiate and regulate the development of secondary sexual characteristics and reproductive capabilities.

2.1.2. Testosterone triggers the development of sexual organs, facial and body hair growth, deepening of the voice, and an increase in height and muscle mass.

2.1.3. Estrogen stimulates the development of breasts, the widening of hips, and the thickening of the uterine lining, preparing the body for menstruation and potential pregnancy.

2.1.4. These hormonal changes are essential for achieving sexual maturity and reproductive health.

2.2. Focus Question -- How do hormones work with receptors to bring about changes in your cells?

2.2.1. Hormones work by interacting with receptors, which are special proteins located inside or on the surface of target cells. Each hormone has specific receptors that recognize and bind to it. This hormone-receptor interaction triggers biochemical events inside the cell, leading to changes in the cell's behaviour and function.

2.2.2. Hormone Production and Secretion: Glands produce hormones and release them into the bloodstream. Hormone Transport: Hormones travel through the bloodstream to reach their target cells. Receptor Binding: Hormones bind to their specific receptors on or inside the target cells. Signal Transduction: The hormone-receptor complex activates intracellular signalling pathways. Cellular Response: These signalling pathways result in changes in gene expression, enzyme activity, or cell behaviour, ultimately leading to physiological changes.

2.3. Focus Question -- From what you’ve learned from this video, what are some of the risks that hormones can pose?

2.3.1. Hormones have a crucial role but any imbalances or variations can be extremely bad.

2.3.2. Diabetes: Caused by insufficient insulin production from the pancreas, leading to high blood sugar levels. Hypothyroidism: Insufficient thyroid hormone production results in fatigue, slowed heart rate, depression, and weight gain. Hyperthyroidism: Excess thyroid hormone production leads to weight loss, sleeplessness, and irritability. Mood Fluctuations: Hormonal changes can affect brain chemicals like serotonin, causing mood swings and emotional disturbances. Osteoporosis: Decreased estrogen levels, particularly during menopause, can lead to reduced bone density and increased fracture risk. Stress Effects: High cortisol levels, the primary stress hormone, can suppress estrogen production, impacting overall hormonal balance and health.

3. Section 3: menopause

3.1. Focus Question – What is menopause and what are the symptoms?

3.1.1. Menopause is a natural biological process that marks the end of a woman's reproductive period. It typically occurs between the ages of 45 and 55 and is characterised by the end of ovulation and menstrual cycles for at least 12 consecutive months.

3.1.2. Physical Symptoms-> Irregular menstrual periods Hot flashes/ heavy sweating Fatigue Muscle aches Heart palpitations Headaches/ dizziness Sore breasts Sensitive skin Dry hair and hair loss Vaginal dryness and thinning skin Painful sexual intercourse Loss of libido Vaginal discharge and itching Urinary tract infections Urinary incontinence

3.1.3. Psychological Symptoms-> Mood swings Fatigue Apathy Difficulty accepting the end of fertility

3.2. Focus Question – What hormones are involved in menopause and how does it affect the female body?

3.2.1. Estrogen: A significant drop in estrogen production by the ovaries is the primary hormonal change during menopause. Estrogen is crucial for various bodily functions, including the regulation of the menstrual cycle and maintaining the health of reproductive tissues. Progesterone: Levels of progesterone also decline. Progesterone helps regulate the menstrual cycle and maintain the uterine lining.

3.2.2. Reproductive System: The decline in estrogen and progesterone results in the end of ovulation and menstrual periods, marking the end of a woman's reproductive years. Hot Flashes and Sweating: Decreased estrogen levels affect the hypothalamus, the part of the brain that regulates body temperature, leading to hot flashes and sweating. Vaginal and Urinary Tract Changes: Reduced estrogen causes the vaginal walls to become thinner and drier, leading to discomfort during intercourse, increased risk of vaginal infections, and urinary tract issues. Bone Density: Lower estrogen levels increase the risk of osteoporosis by reducing bone density. Mood and Cognitive Function: Hormonal changes can lead to mood swings, fatigue, and cognitive issues such as memory lapses. Physical Appearance: Changes in hormone levels can result in dry hair, hair loss, and sensitive skin.

4. Section 4: hormone replacement therapy

4.1. Focus Question – What is hormone replacement therapy (HRT)? and how is it administered?

4.1.1. It is a treatment used to alleviate the symptoms of menopause by replenishing the hormones that the body stops producing during this period. It involves the administration of hormones such as estrogen and progesterone, and occasionally testosterone.

4.1.2. Tablets: Oral administration is common but may carry a higher risk of side effects. Skin patches: Applied to the skin and replaced periodically, providing a steady release of hormones. Gels: Applied to the skin and absorbed directly into the bloodstream. Vaginal creams, rings, or tablets: Specifically used to treat vaginal symptoms without significantly affecting the rest of the body. Pellets: Inserted under the skin for a slow, continuous release of hormones

4.2. Focus Question – What are the known benefits of HRT?

4.2.1. Relief of Hot Flushes and Night Sweats: HRT is the most effective treatment for these symptoms. Improved Sleep and Mood: By alleviating menopausal symptoms, HRT can enhance sleep quality and mood stability. Enhanced Sexual Function: It can help with vaginal dryness and discomfort during intercourse. Prevention of Osteoporosis: HRT helps maintain bone density and reduces the risk of fractures. Potential Reduction in Risk of Certain Diseases: It may lower the risk of heart disease, type 2 diabetes, and some types of cancer, although these benefits are generally considered secondary to its primary use for symptom relief.

4.3. Focus Question – What are the known risks of HRT?

4.3.1. Breast Cancer: Some studies indicate a slightly increased risk of breast cancer, particularly with long-term use of combined estrogen-progestogen therapy. Blood Clots: Oral HRT can increase the risk of blood clots. However, this risk is lower with transdermal (skin patch) forms. Stroke: There is a potential increased risk of stroke, especially with oral HRT and in women who start HRT later in life. Heart Disease: The impact on heart disease risk varies based on the type of HRT, timing, and duration of use. Starting HRT within 10 years of menopause appears to have a lower associated risk. Gallbladder Disease: Increased risk, particularly with oral formulations. Other Side Effects: These may include nausea, headache, breast tenderness, fluid retention, bloating, and irregular bleeding. Most side effects diminish within a few months.