Qualitative Analysis (Created By- Aryan Bhaiya)

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Qualitative Analysis (Created By- Aryan Bhaiya) by Mind Map: Qualitative Analysis (Created By- Aryan Bhaiya)

1. P-block

1.1. B Group

1.1.1. Sulphate Ion

1.1.2. Phosphate Ion

1.1.3. Cyanate Ion

1.1.4. Thiocyanate Ion

1.2. A Group

1.2.1. Wet Test

1.2.1.1. Dilute Sulphuric Acid

1.2.1.1.1. Carbonate Ion

1.2.1.1.2. Bicarbonate Ion

1.2.1.1.3. Sulphite Ion

1.2.1.1.4. Bisulphite Ion

1.2.1.1.5. Sulphide Ion

1.2.1.1.6. Bisulphide Ion

1.2.1.1.7. Nitrite Ion

1.2.1.1.8. Acetate Ion

1.2.1.1.9. Thiosulphate Ion

1.2.1.2. Concentrated Sulphuric Acid

1.2.1.2.1. Fluoride Ion

1.2.1.2.2. Chloride Ion

1.2.1.2.3. Bromide Ion

1.2.1.2.4. Nitrate Ion

1.2.1.2.5. Borate Ion

1.2.1.2.6. Oxalate Ion

2. Confirmatory Test

2.1. 1. Starch Iodide Test

2.1.1. (NO2-)+ (I-) + CH3COOH → (I3-) + (NO) +CH3COO- Starch + (I3-) → Blue Complex

2.1.1.1. 2.Brown Ring Test

2.1.1.1.1. CH3COOH + (NO2-) → HNO2+(CH3COO-) HNO2 → HNO3 + NO (Fe2+) + NO +(SO4)2- → [Fe(H2O)5(NO)]SO4 + H2O

3. Charcoal Cavity Test

3.1. Metallic carbonate when heated in a charcoal cavity decomposes to give corresponding oxide. The oxide appears as a coloured residue in the cavity. Sometimes oxide may be reduced to metal by the carbon of the charcoal cavity

3.1.1. Pb2+

3.1.1.1. Yellow residue when hot

3.1.1.1.1. Grey residue when cold

3.1.2. As3+

3.1.2.1. White residue with odour of garlic

3.1.3. Cd2+

3.1.3.1. Brown Residue

3.1.4. Zn2+

3.1.4.1. Yellow residue when hot

3.1.4.1.1. white residue when cold

4. Cobalt Nitrate Test

4.1. If the residue in the charcoal cavity is white, cobalt nitrate test is performed

4.1.1. On heating, cobalt nitrate decomposes into cobalt (II) oxide, which gives a characteristic colour with metal oxide present in the cavity.

4.1.1.1. Co(NO3)2 → CoO + NO2 + O2

4.1.1.1.1. ZnO

4.1.1.1.2. MgO

4.1.1.1.3. Al2O3

5. D-block

5.1. Borax Bead Test

5.1.1. When Borax is heated on platinum coated wire loop, then it first swell up due to loss of water of crystallization and cover entire portion of loop

5.1.1.1. On further Heating, it give transparent crystalline bead of sodium metaborate (NaBO2) and boric anhydride (B2O3)

5.1.1.1.1. Colored D-Block Cation

6. S-block

6.1. Flame Test

6.1.1. Performed with help of platinum coated which is dipped with con.HCl and brought in contact with given solid mixture

6.1.1.1. Every S-block element give flame coloration except Be and Mg

6.1.1.1.1. Li+

6.1.1.1.2. Na+

6.1.1.1.3. K+

6.1.1.1.4. Rb+

6.1.1.1.5. Cs+

6.1.1.1.6. Ca2+

6.1.1.1.7. Sr 2+

6.1.1.1.8. Ba2+

6.1.1.1.9. Cu2+

6.1.1.1.10. Pb 2+ and Bi 3+

7. Test For Basic Radical

7.1. Group-0

7.1.1. Reagent: NaOH/Ca(OH)2/Heat Only

7.1.1.1. NH4+

7.1.1.1.1. Ammonia Gas Evolve

7.2. Group-1

7.2.1. Reagent: Dil. HCl

7.2.1.1. Ag+

7.2.1.1.1. AgCl (White)

7.2.1.2. Pb2+

7.2.1.2.1. PbCl2 (White)

7.2.1.3. (Hg2)2+

7.2.1.3.1. Hg2Cl2 (White)

7.3. Group-2

7.3.1. 2-A

7.3.1.1. Reagent: H2S in dil.HCl and this group will give yellow precipitate with Ammonical Sulphate

7.3.1.1.1. As3+

7.3.1.1.2. Sb3+

7.3.1.1.3. Sn2+

7.3.1.1.4. Sn4+

7.3.2. 2-B

7.3.2.1. Reagent: H2S in dil.HCl and this group will not give yellow precipitate with Ammonical Sulphate

7.3.2.1.1. Hg2+

7.3.2.1.2. Pb2+

7.3.2.1.3. Bi3+

7.3.2.1.4. Cu2+

7.3.2.1.5. Cd2+

7.4. Group-3

7.4.1. Reagent: NH4Cl+ NH4OH

7.4.1.1. Fe2+

7.4.1.1.1. Fe(OH)3 (Reddish-brown0

7.4.1.2. Al3+

7.4.1.2.1. Al(OH)3 (Gelatinous white)

7.4.1.3. Cr3+

7.4.1.3.1. Cr(OH)3 (Green)

7.5. Group-4

7.5.1. Reagent: NH4Cl +NH4OH + H2S

7.5.1.1. Zn 2+

7.5.1.1.1. ZnS (White)

7.5.1.2. Mn 2+

7.5.1.2.1. MnS (Buff pink)

7.5.1.3. Co 2+

7.5.1.3.1. CoS (Black)

7.5.1.4. Ni 2+

7.5.1.4.1. NiS (Black)

7.6. Group-5

7.6.1. Reagent: (NH4)2CO3 + NH4Cl +NH4OH

7.6.1.1. Ba 2+

7.6.1.1.1. BaCO3 (White)

7.6.1.2. Ca 2+

7.6.1.2.1. CaCO3 (White)

7.6.1.3. Sr 2+

7.6.1.3.1. SrCO3 (White)

7.7. Group-6

7.7.1. NH4OH + Na2HPO4

7.7.1.1. Mg2+

7.7.1.1.1. MgNH4PO4 (white)

7.7.1.2. Na+

7.7.1.2.1. No precipitate

7.7.1.3. K+

7.7.1.3.1. No Precipitate

8. Prelims Test