Argument 1: Transition from Basic Needs to Capabilities Approach

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Argument 1: Transition from Basic Needs to Capabilities Approach by Mind Map: Argument 1: Transition from Basic Needs to Capabilities Approach

1. Conclusion 1: Development should go beyond basic needs to encompass human capabilities.

1.1. Support 1:** Basic needs focus on essential material conditions such as food, shelter, and health. However, this approach is limited in addressing the fuller aspects of human well-being.

1.1.1. - *Example:* The discussion on the limitations of basic needs ethics, as it often fails to account for non-material aspects like dignity and participation in society

1.2. Support 2:** The capabilities approach, advocated by Amartya Sen and Martha Nussbaum, includes a broader range of human functions, such as the ability to participate in society, express oneself, and pursue personal goals.

1.2.1. Example:* Sen’s emphasis on positive freedom, which entails having the capacity to achieve things one has reason to value, goes beyond mere survival needs

1.3. Support 3:** Empirical examples from development projects show that focusing on capabilities leads to more holistic human development outcomes.

1.3.1. Example:* Oxfam-supported community projects in Pakistan demonstrated improvements in women's self-confidence and social status, not just economic benefits

2. Conclusion 2: Positive freedom is central to human development

2.1. Support 1:** Positive freedom, as described by Sen, involves the actual ability to pursue goals one values, rather than merely the absence of constraints.

2.1.1. Example:* The literacy program in Pakistan, which enabled women to assert their rights and build confidence, highlights the importance of positive freedom

2.2. Support 2:** Development policies should therefore aim to expand individuals’ capability sets, allowing them to choose from various life paths.

2.2.1. Example:* Alkire’s assessment of the impact of development projects on various aspects such as relationships and knowledge growth emphasizes the multifaceted nature of positive freedom

2.3. Support 3:** The transition from negative to positive freedom underscores the shift from merely removing barriers to actively enhancing individuals' capabilities.

2.3.1. Example:* Sen’s concept of development as freedom integrates various dimensions of well-being and agency, moving beyond economic measures

3. Conclusion 3: Human development must consider both well-being and agency

3.1. Support 1:** Well-being achievement refers to the actual attainment of valuable states of being, such as health and education.

3.1.1. Example:* Sen’s distinction between well-being achievement and well-being freedom, where the latter refers to the potential to achieve these states

3.2. Support 2:** Agency freedom involves having the capacity to pursue goals that one values, not just for oneself but also in relation to others.

3.2.1. Example:* The empowerment of women through literacy programs in Pakistan shows how agency freedom enhances their role in society

3.3. Support 3:** The capabilities approach provides a framework for evaluating development by considering both what individuals can achieve and what they are free to achieve.

3.3.1. Example:* Sen’s comprehensive evaluation framework that includes well-being achievement, well-being freedom, and agency freedom