Phonetics and Phonology

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Phonetics and Phonology by Mind Map: Phonetics and Phonology

1. Pronunciation strategies

1.1. Intonation

1.1.1. The pitch of the voice with which a voiced sound is pronounced

1.2. Stress and Rythm

1.2.1. The strength you put on a tonic syllable . The rythm would be the cadence of that stress

1.3. Consonants

1.3.1. Sounds that are pronounced with a blockage of some kind of the air

1.4. Vowels

1.4.1. Sounds produced by the free passage of air

2. Vowels

2.1. Place of articulation

2.1.1. Front

2.1.1.1. They are produced in the front area of the mouth

2.1.2. Central

2.1.2.1. They are produced in the central area of the mouth

2.1.3. Back

2.1.3.1. They are produced in the back area of the mouth

2.2. Roundness

2.2.1. Unrounded

2.2.1.1. The lips do not take a round form

2.2.2. Rounded

2.2.2.1. The lips take a round form

2.2.3. Semirounded

2.2.3.1. The lips take a semiround form

2.3. Openness

2.3.1. Open

2.3.1.1. The mounth is wide open

2.3.2. Mid

2.3.2.1. The mouth is half open

2.3.3. Close

2.3.3.1. The mouth is rathet closed

3. Teaching Pronunciation

3.1. Why Teaching Pronunciation

3.1.1. To reach intelligibility

3.2. What pronunciation model to teach

3.3. Techniques and activities

3.3.1. Drilling

3.3.1.1. Helps students improve the pronunciation of certain items

3.3.2. Chaining

3.3.2.1. Can be used for difficult sentences

3.3.3. Substitution drilling

3.3.3.1. Drilling a structure substituting elements

3.3.4. Minimal pairs and related activitiues

3.3.4.1. It helps with specific difficult sounds

3.3.5. Pronunciation and spelling activities

3.3.5.1. Explore the relationship between spelling and pronunciation

3.3.6. Taping students

3.3.6.1. It can be useful from time to time

3.3.7. Listening activities

3.3.7.1. It focuses the attention on specific aspects

3.3.8. Reading activities

3.3.8.1. It helps them monitoring while understanding

4. Pronunciation Instruction Techniques

4.1. Self monitoring

4.1.1. Students learn to self monitor their pronunciation

4.2. Tutorial Sessions and Self-Study

4.2.1. Diagnostic analysis of each student to create an individualized program

4.3. Tutorial Sessions and Self-Study

4.3.1. Reports the results of analysing student speech samples

4.4. Modeling and Individual Correction

4.4.1. Reports the results of analysing student speech samples

4.5. Communication Activities

4.5.1. Designing of activities to practice specific sounds.

4.6. Written Versions of Oral Presentations

4.6.1. In advanced levels, students are given strategies for analyzing written versions of their presentations.

4.7. Computer-Assisted Language Learning

4.7.1. The use of visual displays of speech patterns to work on intonation, stress, and sounds with individuals and small groups

4.8. Explanations

4.8.1. These should be kept to a minimum to avoid stress

4.9. Utilization of Known Sounds

4.9.1. Comparisons with the students’ first language may help

4.10. Incorporation of Novel Elements

4.10.1. New elements with clear instructions

4.11. Communication Strategies

4.11.1. These will help the students give the impression that their pronunciation is better than it really is.

4.12. Affective Strategies

4.12.1. These can be taught to help learners lower their anxiety levels