History of the Microscope

Grade 11 level History of Microscope

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History of the Microscope by Mind Map: History of the Microscope

1. 20th Century Breakthrough

1.1. 1903

1.1.1. Richard Zsigmondy

1.1.1.1. develops Unltramicroscope

1.1.1.2. to study objects below wavelength of light

1.1.1.3. The Nobel Prize in Physics 1925

1.2. 1932

1.2.1. Frits Zernike

1.2.1.1. invents Contrast microscope

1.2.1.2. allows study of colourless and transparent biological materials

1.2.1.3. The Nobel Prize in Physics 1953

1.3. 1938

1.3.1. Ernst Ruska

1.3.1.1. develops electron microscropes

1.3.1.2. improves resolution

1.3.1.3. The Nobel Prize in Physics 1986

1.4. 1981

1.4.1. Gerd Binning & Heinrich Rohrer

1.4.1.1. invented the scanning tunnelling microscope

1.4.1.2. gives 3D image down to atomic level

1.4.1.3. The Nobel Prize in Physics 1986

2. Invention and Early Discoveries

2.1. 1590

2.1.1. Hans and Zacharias Janssen

2.1.1.1. made the first micrscope by placing two lenses in a tube

2.2. 1667

2.2.1. Robert Hooke

2.2.1.1. Micrographia, cork

2.3. 1675

2.3.1. Anton Van Leewenhoek

2.3.1.1. observes blood, insects, bacteria

3. 19th Century Improvement

3.1. 18th Century

3.1.1. Technological Innovation

3.1.2. Improved user-friendliness

3.2. 1830

3.2.1. Joseph Jackson Lister

3.2.1.1. reduced spherical aberration by showing that several weak lenses used together at certain distance gave good magnification

3.3. 1878

3.3.1. Ernest Abbe

3.3.1.1. formulates resolution to the wavelength of light

4. Early Development

4.1. 14th Century

4.1.1. Len Grinding

4.1.1.1. Improved Eyesights

4.1.2. Spectacles