Categories of Exceptionalities

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Categories of Exceptionalities by Mind Map: Categories of Exceptionalities

1. Physical

1.1. Physical limitations requiring special assistance in learning environments and situations, to profit in learning that is equivalent to that of students without exceptionalities in the same age and developmental level.

2. Behaviour

2.1. Educational performance is affected by behavioural problems overtime. This will result in poor abilities to maintain and build relationships, anxiousness and fears, compulsive reactions and learning challenges that are not linked to any intellectual, sensory or other health factors.

3. Communication

3.1. 5 categories:

3.1.1. 1) Autism: severe learning disorder disturbances in rate of educational development, ability to connect to the environment, challenges in mobility, perception, speech and language. There can be a lack of representational symbolic behaviour that anticipates and antecedes language.

3.1.2. 2) Deaf and Hard of Hearing: Speech development and language acquisition is impaired due to diminished or non-existence auditory response to sound.

3.1.3. 3) Language Impairment: Neurological, Psychological, Physical, or Sensory impairment that poses challenges to language acquisition in comprehension, verbal communication, written or symbolic system of communication. This can include dysfluency, voice and articulation development.

3.1.4. 4) Speech Impairment: Neurological, Psychological, Physical or Sensory factors that affect language formulation. It can affect aspects of transmitting oral messages, and can be characterized by impairment in articulation, rhythm, and stress.

3.1.5. 5) Learning Disability: Neurodevelopmental disorder impacting the ability to... a) perceive and process verbal/non-verbal information in an accurate manner (students in the average range of intellectual abilities) b) underachievement of academics or achievements but with extremely high level of effort and/or additional support c) results in difficulties in development of skills such as reading, mathematics, writing, work habits and learning skills d) Difficulties in cognitive processes: phonological, memory, attention, processing speed, perceptual motor processing, visual-spatial processing, executive functions (self-regulation of behaviour and emotions, planning, organizing of thoughts and activities, prioritizing, decision making...) e) Challenges met in social interactions (difficulty in understanding social norms, or the point of view of others)

4. Intellectual

4.1. 3 categories:

4.1.1. 1) Giftedness: Requires differentiated learning experiences of a depth and breadth beyond what is normally practised and provided in the regular school program.

4.1.2. 2) Mild Intellectual Disability: Can partake in a regular class with the aid of curriculum modifications and support services, or cannot partake in a regular class because of slower intellectual development. There can also be potential for independent adjustment to learning with self support.

4.1.3. 3) Developmental Disability: Severe learning disorder. There is limited potential for academic learning, social adjustment and self-support. Special Education program may be supportive.

5. Multiple

5.1. Combinations of learning and disorders, impairments, or physical disabilities that require the services of one or more teachers or support services.