English grammar rules

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English grammar rules by Mind Map: English grammar rules

1. Articles

1.1. Definite Article

1.1.1. "The" is used to refer to specific nouns. For example, "the book on the table."

1.2. Indefinite Articles

1.2.1. "A" and "An" are used to refer to nonspecific nouns. "A" is used before consonant sounds, and "An" before vowel sounds. For example, "a cat" vs. "an apple."

2. Prepositions

2.1. - Prepositions show relationships between a noun (or pronoun) and other words in a sentence. For example, "The book is on the table."

3. Punctuation

3.1. Periods

3.1.1. End declarative sentences. For example, "She walked home."

3.2. Commas

3.2.1. Separate items in a list, clauses, or phrases. For example, "I bought apples, oranges, and bananas."

3.3. Quotation Marks

3.3.1. Enclose direct speech or quotations. For example, "She said, 'Hello.'"

3.4. Apostrophes

3.4.1. Show possession or form contractions. For example, "Mary's book" or "don't."

4. Conjunctions and Sentence Connectors

4.1. Coordinating Conjunctions

4.1.1. For, and, nor, but, or, yet, so (FANBOYS).

4.2. Subordinating Conjunctions

4.2.1. Connect dependent clauses to independent clauses. For example, "because," "although," "if."

4.3. Conjunctive Adverbs

4.3.1. however, therefore, moreover, consequently, etc.

5. Common Mistakes

5.1. Run-on Sentences

5.1.1. Avoid combining multiple independent clauses without proper punctuation or conjunctions.

5.2. Sentence Fragments

5.2.1. Ensure each sentence has a subject and a verb and expresses a complete thought.

5.3. Misplaced Modifiers

5.3.1. Place modifiers next to the word they modify. For example, "She almost drove her kids to school every day" vs. "She drove her kids to school almost every day."

6. Gerunds and Infinitives

6.1. Gerunds

6.1.1. Verb forms ending in -ing used as nouns. "Swimming is fun."

6.2. Infinitives

6.2.1. "To" + base form of the verb. "To swim is fun." - Some verbs are followed by gerunds (e.g., enjoy, avoid), while others are followed by infinitives (e.g., decide, plan).

7. Reported Speech

7.1. Changing direct speech to indirect speech. For example, "She said, 'I am tired'" becomes "She said that she was tired."

8. Auxiliary Verbs

8.1. Used with main verbs to form questions, negatives, and different tenses. Common auxiliary verbs are "be," "do," and "have." For example, "Do you know?" "She is running," "They have finished."

9. Sentence Types

9.1. Simple Sentence

9.1.1. One independent clause. For example, "She runs."

9.2. Compound Sentence

9.2.1. Two or more independent clauses joined by a conjunction or semicolon. For example, "She runs, and he swims."

9.3. Complex Sentence

9.3.1. One independent clause and at least one dependent clause. For example, "She runs because she enjoys it."

9.4. Compound-Complex Sentence

9.4.1. Two or more independent clauses and at least one dependent clause. For example, "She runs because she enjoys it, and he swims."

10. Prepositional Phrases

11. Verb Patterns with Gerunds and Infinitives

12. Appositives

13. Ellipsis

14. Parallel Structure

15. Subjunctive Mood

16. Quantifiers

17. Sentence Structure

17.1. Subject-Verb-Object (SVO)

17.1.1. This is the basic sentence structure in English. For example, "She (subject) loves (verb) books (object)."

17.2. Subject-Verb Agreement

17.2.1. The subject and verb must agree in number. For example, "He runs" (singular) vs. "They run" (plural).

17.2.2. The subject and verb must agree in number. For example, "He runs" (singular) vs. "They run" (plural).

17.2.3. The subject and verb must agree in number. For example, "He runs" (singular) vs. "They run" (plural).

18. Capitalization

18.1. Always capitalize the first word of a sentence, proper nouns, and titles. For example, "She went to Paris."

19. Verb Tenses

19.1. Simple Tenses

19.1.1. - Present (I eat)

19.1.2. - Past (I ate)

19.1.3. - Future (I will eat)

19.2. Continuous/Progressive Tenses

19.2.1. - Present Continuous (I am eating)

19.2.2. - Past Continuous (I was eating)

19.2.3. - Future Continuous (I will be eating)

19.3. Perfect Tenses

19.3.1. - Present Perfect (I have eaten)

19.3.2. - Future Perfect (I will have eaten)

19.3.3. - Past Perfect (I had eaten)

20. Adjectives

20.1. Modify nouns and pronouns. For example, "a beautiful day."

21. Adjectives and Adverbs

21.1. Adverbs

21.1.1. Modify verbs, adjectives, and other adverbs. For example, "He runs quickly."

22. Nouns and Pronouns

22.1. Singular and Plural Nouns

22.1.1. Most nouns add -s or -es for plurals (e.g., cat/cats, box/boxes). Some have irregular forms (e.g., child/children, mouse/mice).

22.2. Pronoun Agreement

22.2.1. Pronouns must agree with their antecedents in number and gender. For example, "Everyone must bring their own lunch."

23. Conditional Sentences

23.1. Zero Conditional

23.1.1. General truths. "If you heat water, it boils."

23.2. First Conditional

23.2.1. Real future possibilities. "If it rains, we will stay home."

23.3. Second Conditional

23.3.1. Unreal or unlikely present/future situations. "If I were you, I would apologize."

23.4. Third Conditional

23.4.1. Past situations that did not happen. "If I had known, I would have called."

24. Modal Verbs

24.1. - Express necessity, possibility, permission, and ability. Common modals include "can," "could," "may," "might," "must," "shall," "should," "will," and "would." For example, "You must study," "Can I help you?"

25. Comparatives and Superlatives

25.1. Comparatives

25.1.1. "er" or "more" (e.g., taller, more beautiful).

25.2. Superlatives

25.2.1. "est" or "most" (e.g., tallest, most beautiful).

26. Correlative Conjunctions

26.1. Pairs of conjunctions that work together. Examples include "either...or," "neither...nor," "both...and," "not only...but also." For example, "She is both intelligent and kind."