Educational Perspectives

Get Started. It's Free
or sign up with your email address
Rocket clouds
Educational Perspectives by Mind Map: Educational Perspectives

1. Sociological

1.1. originally, was a process of eliminating children's unruly behaviors (Barakett and Cleghorn)

1.1.1. now, socialization is seen as a process of internalization of social norms, rules, values

1.2. Functionalist (Barakett and Cleghorn)

1.2.1. sees individual as reacting and responding to people and situations

1.2.2. Jackson (1968) and Dreeben (1968)

1.2.2.1. show that hidden curriculum is part of regular features of informal schooling process

1.2.3. Apple and Smith (1991)

1.2.3.1. point out importance of textbooks that teach culture

1.2.3.1.1. text books reflect the ideas and interests of those who wrote them

1.3. Schutz (Barakett and Cleghorn)

1.3.1. how individuals make sense of a situation is important

1.3.1.1. we construct social types by drawing on larger social contexts and behave on the basis of them

1.4. Emile Durkeim (Barakett and Cleghorn)

1.4.1. schooling passes on a society's normative system

1.4.1.1. schools instill an idealized version of values of society

1.5. Political Socialization (Barakett and Cleghorn)

1.5.1. role that school plays in inculcating the values and norms that support prevailing structure of society

1.6. many have argued that peer group values and behaviors may be more important in behaviors than parents or schools, popular culture and media are also important (Barakett and Cleghorn)

1.6.1. student subcutures

1.6.1.1. teachers much be aware of how popular cultures and peer groups affect their practice

1.7. intersubjectivity is the knowledge we have accumulated through experiences (Barakett and Cleghorn)

1.7.1. common sense knowledge

1.7.1.1. knowledge that individuals have at-hand and can draw upon for defining object, situation, or event

1.8. primary socialization (Barakett and Cleghorn)

1.8.1. micro world of the family

1.8.1.1. children's socialization is greatly affected by a variety of factors, such as SES, stress, family life etc. (all sources)

1.9. secondary socialization (Barakett and Cleghorn)

1.9.1. main agent is school

1.9.1.1. extent of socialization depends on child's family background

1.10. structural functionalists (Davies and Guppy)

1.10.1. schools in modern societies act as equilizers to generate opportunities for all students and level the playing field

1.11. neoMarxists (Davies and Guppy)

1.11.1. believe that schools "reproduce" social inequalities

1.11.2. schools offer little choice for females of ethnic minority

1.12. Willms and Hertzman (Davies and Guppy)

1.12.1. suggest that socio-economic gradients persist from kindergarten to age 15 and are not noticeably diminished by schooling

1.13. limited compensation model (Davies and Guppy)

1.13.1. predicts some schools can partly counteract some inequalities

1.14. neighborhood and schools also have an impact on capacity to learn (Davies and Guppy and class

1.14.1. children in special education classes often have lower achievement than those who were kept mainstream

1.15. status attainment (Davies and Guppy)

1.15.1. aspirations are good predictors of attainments

1.15.2. Goldthorpe (1996)

1.15.2.1. social background affects how one assesses the risk and benefits of higher education

1.16. Racism (Ghosh)

1.16.1. Race is a socially constructed way of categorizing people

1.16.2. can determine cultural or individual achievement

1.16.3. does take place in schools

1.16.3.1. in the form of bullying, isolation, ostracization, physical violence, sometimes murder

1.16.3.1.1. therefore, education can help with preventing racism

1.17. affluent youth with parents of higher education, income, occupational prestige have consistently done better in school (Davies and Guppy)

2. Philosophical

2.1. Tom (1987, 1995) and Liston & Zelchner (1987) (Barakett and Cleghorn)

2.1.1. pedagogical practices of teachers have been influenced by dominant ideological discources

2.1.2. teachers need to be trained to reflect on what kind of teachers they are, with respect to their values and beliefs, and how they became that way

2.1.3. teacher roles are ones that transform knowledge in a noncritical manner

2.2. Hargreaves (Barakett and Cleghorn)

2.2.1. states that teachers develop typificiations

2.2.1.1. becomes part of commonsense knowledge

2.2.1.2. practical necessity to deal with classroom activities

2.2.1.3. helps them define characteristics and expectations for performance

2.3. Freud's Psychoanalytical theory (Barakett and Cleghorn)

2.3.1. relies on biological factors that explain development of identity, personality, and behavior

2.4. Piaget's cognitive perspective (Barakett and Cleghorn)

2.4.1. behavior standards are result of identification with parents, from rewards and punishments

2.5. Social Learning Theory (Barakett and Cleghorn)

2.5.1. focuses on how environmental factors contribute to socialization

2.6. Mead (Barakett and Cleghorn)

2.6.1. development of self, depending on language and social interaction, is important

2.6.1.1. "I" represents spontaneity and individuality

2.6.1.2. what the child takes into account depends on existing needs, feelings, purpose, expectations, and rules of the group

2.6.1.3. "me" is internalized attitudes and expectations

2.7. "seasonal learning" (Davies and Guppy)

2.7.1. skill levels for disadvantaged children decreases slightly over the summer months

2.7.1.1. conclude that schools function as equalizers

2.7.2. for children whom are middle-class, skill level remains fairly steady throughout summer months

2.7.2.1. the prior school system from September - June may need to be reformed to be more effective, due to decreased need for child agricultural labor

2.8. radical egalitarians (Davies and Guppy)

2.8.1. urge people to treat everyone as equal and assume that every person is as smart as the next

2.9. Pygmalion in Classroom (Davies and Guppy)

2.9.1. teachers have lower expectations for students from lower SES backgrounds and minority backgrounds

2.9.1.1. this creates a self-fulfilling prophecy because students internalize those labels, and often underachieve

2.10. Behaviorism (EDU 210)

2.10.1. presented by Pavlov

2.10.1.1. believes that people learn from repetition, and rewards/punishments

2.10.1.1.1. Math Blaster is an example

2.11. Cognitivism (EDU 210)

2.11.1. believes that prior knowledge is key in learning

2.11.1.1. scaffolding

2.11.1.1.1. mind maps are an example of cognitivist learning

2.12. Constructivist (EDU 210)

2.12.1. believes that we need to interact with environment to learn, and that we construct knowledge from experiences

2.12.1.1. Vygotsky's Zone of Proximal Development

2.13. Connectivism (EDU 210)

2.13.1. creating connections and developing a network is important to learning

2.13.1.1. Twitter is an example

2.14. Pugach

2.14.1. 5 factors contribute to your philosophy of teaching

2.14.1.1. experiences as a student

2.14.1.2. autobiography

2.14.1.3. beliefs

2.14.1.4. experience working in schools

2.14.1.5. views of teaching from media

2.15. Inspiring Education

2.15.1. teachers should strive to make students these three things:

2.15.1.1. Ethical Citizens

2.15.1.2. Entrepreneurial Spirit

2.15.1.3. Engaged Thinkers

3. Historical

3.1. Globalization in the 1900s (Kachur and Harrison)

3.1.1. technological forces that change human interaction on a worldwide scale

3.1.2. involves extension of capitalist production

3.1.3. some countries become poorer while some become richer

3.1.4. competitive advantage goes to the country with the highest educated workforce

3.2. post-war era(Kachur and Harrison)

3.2.1. capitalist, politcally and socially liberal

3.2.2. modern, mass public education was expanded and redefined

3.3. Coleman Report in the 1960s (Davies and Guppy)

3.3.1. found that while resource inequalities had some impact on student performance, their family background played a larger role

3.3.2. in schools with many socio-economic circumstances, inequalities emerged within those schools

3.3.3. Steven Heyneman and William Loxley confirmed Coleman's findings on a larger scale in 1983

3.4. mass immigration in Canada throughout history (Davies and Guppy)

3.4.1. from the 1960s has moved towards seeking out more educated people from around the world, mostly from Asian countries

3.5. The Vertical Mosaic (Davies and Guppy)

3.5.1. presented by John Porter in 1965

3.5.1.1. states that those with the most education and those who monopolized the education system were mostly Canadians of British decent

3.6. Eugenics (Davies and Guppy, and class)

3.6.1. sterilization of those not deemed competent, or those with a disability

3.7. early 1970s (Kachur and Harrison)

3.7.1. series of social, economic, and political crises that have a major impact on education

3.7.2. social democrats

3.7.2.1. said education was failing to deliver on social equality

3.7.2.2. education failing to deal with racism and sexism

3.7.3. traditional conservatives

3.7.3.1. education failing to instill "proper" social and moral values

3.7.4. neoliberals

3.7.4.1. merged with conservatives

3.7.4.1.1. made several proposals for educational reform

3.8. Cultural Mismatch Theory (Davies and Guppy)

3.8.1. Bourdieu (1977, 1984)

3.8.1.1. emphasizes how socialization provides people with mental norms, habits, and routines

3.8.2. absence of minorities in literature and history texts

3.8.3. schools should facilitate interactions with all parents because school-parent relationships are important

3.9. the New Right (Kachur and Harrison)

3.9.1. married neoliberalism to forms of social and political conservatism

3.9.2. politicize and involve business community in attempt to restructure public education

3.9.3. emphasizes choice, vocationalism, and marketization

3.9.4. cost-containment by lowering teacher wages and increasing class sizes

3.10. 1992 (Kachur and Harrison)

3.10.1. government began rewriting its history by their own records

3.10.1.1. ideological

3.10.1.1.1. government services should be run by corporate principles

3.10.1.2. programmatic

3.10.1.2.1. involves bringing in public services

3.11. 1993 election (Kachur and Harrison)

3.11.1. Klein government

3.11.1.1. social and political revolution that involved significant changes to education

3.11.1.1.1. have actually undermined Alberta public education

3.11.1.2. privitization

3.11.1.2.1. entry of business into classrooms

3.11.1.2.2. increasing transfer of costs to individuals and families

3.11.1.3. coercive and manipulative manner of implementing change

3.12. 1993-1997 (Kachur and Harrison)

3.12.1. deficit crisis

3.12.1.1. deficits/debts out of control

3.12.1.2. social expenditures (education, health, welfare) were cause of crisis

3.12.1.3. could not be dealt with by increasing taxes or relying on economic growth

3.13. September 1997 (Kachur and Harrison)

3.13.1. Growth Summit

3.13.1.1. increased spending in social infrastructure, mainly education

3.14. November 26, 1997 (Kachur and Harrison)

3.14.1. Stockwell Day announced that Alberta's entire surplus was going towards paying debt

3.15. Paul Martin (Kachur and Harrison)

3.15.1. created the Scholarship Foundation as well as Registered Educational Savings Plan

3.16. gender traditionalism (Davies and Guppy)

3.16.1. nurturing fields have moved training into universities

3.16.2. women have now began to go into more "male dominated" careers

3.17. Conquest of Aboriginals by Europeans (Davies and Guppy)

3.17.1. inequality and residential segregation

3.17.1.1. continues to this day