Literary Devices Used in Satire Assignment: Benjamin Byeon 9A

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Literary Devices Used in Satire Assignment: Benjamin Byeon 9A by Mind Map: Literary Devices Used in Satire Assignment: Benjamin Byeon 9A

1. Hyperbole: Figure of speech that uses exaggeration to express strong emotion or create a comic effect.

1.1. Page 77,"three thousands of them, and not three decent ones."

1.1.1. This is a hyperbole because the books are exaggerated. Out of three thousand (a huge number) books, not three (a small number) of them are decent.

1.1.2. Voltaire satirized novels that were written with not much purpose to make the world better.

1.2. Page 78, "that barbarian who wrote an interminable commentary..."

1.2.1. This is a hyperbole mainly because of the word interminable. Interminable is usually used hyperbolically. Besides, this is exaggerated. Nothing can be endless. Also, the word barbarian was humorous and exaggerated.

1.2.2. Voltaire satirized authors who wrote religious books that were close to nonsense. Voltaire wanted people to be more logical and enlightened. He wanted people to get out of the world where heaven and hell belief was strong and everything was based on religion.

2. Irony: Contrast or discrepancy between expectation and reality.

2.1. Page 40, "words failed him when he saw the two girls throw their arms lovingly around the two apes and collapse in tears over their corpses..."

2.1.1. This is irony because it was an event that we would never expect. Most of the people would expect the two women to be glad for the help and cry for happiness. However, the women cried for sorrow and loved the apes, than hating them. Our expectation of the women being happy from the rescue was different from the reality, which was being sad. Who would be happy to mate with monkeys?

2.1.2. Voltaire satirized women who dated unusual people. An example might be a 20 year old marrying a 90 year old grandpa. The two do not match. Instead of men, he replaced with monkeys because mating an animal is absurd and nonsense. So, he satirized women who went out with someone that did not match them at all and unusual. He wanted to write down the unbelievable marriage, or the couples that make wonder, "Why would he/she ever marry him/her?".

2.2. Page 86, "How does it come about that I see you again? began to pour with rain just as they were about to roast me: the downpour was so violent that they despaired of lighting the fire, and I was hanged for want of...surgeon bought my body...started dissecting me...wife came running from the next room...fell on top of him...Don' you know that the devil takes up permanent residence in these people?..."

2.2.1. This is irony because the events that you expected were different to what the reality was. Besides, each coincidental event was unlikely to happen. We all expected Pangloss to be dead for he was hanged, but the reality was wrong. Pangloss survived. The rain was too strong for fire lit up and the rope got wet and hard to knot it. Then, almost being dissected, the wife came down, urging her husband not to dissect people. Again, expectations and reality were different, thus being an ironic.

2.2.2. Voltaire mainly satirized the non-logical people who were still caught by their religious belief, such as jinx and things like the devil taking up permanent residence in those people. He wanted people to think more logically, thus being enlightened. Voltaire felt sad to those people who believed daily events were based on religion, not their actions. Due to the stupid belief, his husband was enable to dissect. Also, some people had to live their life accordingly to their religious belief; he wanted change because he was annoyed by those people. Voltaire also satirized that optimists like Pangloss still existed in the world. He was telling people to be aware of surviving optimists out in the world.

3. Oxymoron: a figure of speech in which apparently contradictory terms appear in conjunction.

3.1. Page 79, "Take me to her, that we may both die of joy."

3.1.1. This is an oxymoron because you cannot feel joy when you die. They are contradictory terms.

3.1.2. Voltaire satirized that this world was not the best because there were misfortunes that make people want to die. Also, this showed that such separation between Cunégonde and Candide was crucial that Candide would rather die of joy with her.

3.2. Page 4," Pangloss taught metaphysico-theologico-cosmo-nigology."

3.2.1. This is an oxymoron because the words contradict. Metaphysico-theologico-cosmo may be a study of something, but after these studies are said, there is the nigology part. Nigology means the study of nothing. How can you be someone who studies metaphysico-theologico-cosmo and study nothing?

3.2.2. Voltaire wanted to satire the nonsense optimist like Pangloss who gave no significant change to the society or even make the society better. He wanted to show that optimists like Pangloss were full of words, but had no meaning, thus showing how absurd optimists were. Voltaire wanted to show us not to learn from people like Pangloss because they talk nonsense.

4. Allusion: Reference to a statement, person, place, event, or thing that is known from literature, history, religion, myth, politics, sports, science, or the arts.

4.1. Page 58, "They say that Venice is strictly for the Venetian nobility, but that foreigners are nevertheless well received when they have plenty of money."

4.1.1. This is an allusion because it makes a true historic belief about Venice.

4.1.2. Voltaire added this because he wanted to show that this world was not the best to the poor. He showed that people who had money could be accepted highly anywhere in the world. Voltaire satirized the optimistic belief that the world was the best because that was not true. There were social class differences. Venice was for the nobility only, not to the poor. Voltaire satirized Venice a bit as well for they only accepted the nobility.

4.2. Page 69, "As you know, the two countries are at war over a few acres of snow on the Canadian border, and they are spending rather more on their lovely war than the whole Canada is worth."

4.2.1. This is an example of allusion because there is satire and a reference to a historic fact. The war between France and England was true.

4.2.2. Voltaire satirized the belief that this world was the best. That was wrong because a place with war and avarice was not at all the best place to be.

4.3. (Comes out in many parts of the novel; just one example.) Page 24, "...watched two lovers being flogged in an auto-da-fé..."

4.3.1. This is an example of allusion because it refers to a historic event or thing. An auto-da-fé is real and did take place. Also, this was part of Voltaire's satire.

4.3.2. Voltaire satirized that this world was not the best because you could be burned alive.

5. Parody: Imitation of a work of literature, art, or music for amusement or satirical purposes.

5.1. Page 6, "'You are hereby the support, the defender, the mainstay, and, in a word, the hero of the Bulgars; your fortune is made, and you glory is assured.' They immediately clap irons on his feet..."

5.1.1. This is parody to Gulliver Adventures because it followed similar events (a gullible character, Candide and Gulliver, going through many adventures with misfortunes), but with a lot more humor.

5.1.2. Voltaire was satirizing the optimists. He was showing that optimists, who were gullible, could face troubles and misfortunes. So, do not be optimists. Voltaire was annoyed by ignorant optimists.

5.2. Page 16, "But, oh my dear Pangloss! Greatest of philosophers!"

5.2.1. Pangloss is a parody of all of the philosophers at that time who spoke nothing, thus giving no effect to the world and change nothing. There is also humor because the words "greatest of philosophers" was sarcastic, meaning the greatest of all bad philosophers.

5.2.2. Voltaire satirized philosophers who gave no significance of their purpose in the world. Voltaire wanted to satirize optimists and show that people like Pangloss should not exist.

5.3. Page 17-18 and 21-23, (one of them), "he was looking at Mademoiselle Cunégonde, for she was she!"

5.3.1. This is a parody of Romeo and Juliet where there were two lovers, but with humor. The old woman was like the nurse and Candide like Romeo.

5.3.2. Voltaire satirized the fact that this world was best because Candide and Cunégonde would soon disunite again and misfortunes that await Candide. He wanted to show that the world was the worst.

6. Understatement: The presenting of something as being smaller, worse, or less important than it actually is.

6.1. Page 75, "While we waited for dinner, Pococuranté gave orders for a concerto to be performed. Candide thought the music delightful. 'It's a sort of noise,' said Pococuranté, 'that whiles away the odd half-hour..."

6.1.1. This is an understatement because Pococuranté understated the the beautiful music as 'sort of noise'.

6.1.2. Voltaire satirized the modern music that time for being not amusing and difficult to play.

6.2. Page 76, "endless recital of battles which are all the same, those gods who are always interfering but never do anything, that Helen of his who is the cause of the war...that Troy which keep besieging without ever talking- it all used to make me weep with boredom."

6.2.1. This is an understatement because Pococuranté understated the story of Troy as boredom, whereas in reality it is one of the best stories up to date.

6.2.2. Voltaire satirized that myths like Troy were insignificant in changing the world and had no meaning, thus boring people. Myths were like make believes.

6.3. Page 76, "second, fourth, and sixth books of the Aeneid are rather fine..." (could not make it italicize)

6.3.1. This is example of understatement because the Aeneid was an excellent book, but was referred as a fine book. Fine does not mean excellent. It just means okay.

6.3.2. Voltaire satirized that the world was not the best because there were people like Pococuranté (person with no interest in something) who make the world look bad. People like Pococuranté sometimes stuns others. Also, the quote showed that the book had no big meaning or change to make the world better but only fun, thus claiming as fine.