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Literary Devices used in Satire by Mind Map: Literary Devices used in Satire
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Literary Devices used in Satire

Allusion

'You are right,' said Pangloss, 'for when man was placed in the garden of Eden, he was put there ut operaretur eum, so that he might work: which proves that man was not born for rest.' (p.93)

It's allusion because, it's using garden of Eden, which is a place referenced from bible., Voltaire is satirizing people (men) are born to work and use their strength in their life, not just sit or rest.

"Candide, observing a Milton, asked whether he did not look upon this author as a great man." (pg.72)

It's a allusion, because Milton was the actually existing person. He was the historical figure and it had made an reference to it., It is satirizing the people who judges with what they know and heard. They should judge people with their insides and how their attitude is.

Hyperbole

But even were she in China, I would fly to her; let us leave now!" (p. 79)

This is hyperbole because, it is exaggerated that Candide is going to fly to China if Cunégonde was there. However, human can't fly that it's exaggerated that he will go anywhere, where Cunégonde is., Voltaire is satirizing the love that how foolish human becomes when human falls in love that Candide say he will fly and get her.

"Wintess Eglon, Kin gof the Moabites, who was assassinated by Ehud; Absalom was hanged by his hair and stabbed in the heart with three spears; King Nadab, son of Joroboam, was killed by Baasha, King Elah by Zimri;Johoram by Jehu; Athaliah by Jehoiada; and the Kings of Jehoiakim, Johiachin, and Zdekiah were all sold into captivity. And you will recall in what manner death came for Croesus, Astyages, Darius, Dionysius of Syracuse, Pyrrhus, Perseus, Hannibal, Jugurtha, Ariovistus, Caesar, Pompey, Nero, Otho, Vitellius, Dominitian, Richard II of England ... and the Emperor Henry IV." (p. 93)

This is hyperbole because, there are huge amount of people who will be resulted with bad lucks, misfortunes that some were killed and sold. However, it's very exxagerated of how they were resulted with misfortunes and there are so many people who were called., Voltaire is satirizing that unlike the usual rank, people with higher rank have worse result of their life. So the higher rank leads to misfortunes.

Irony

'A mere commoner who is in a position to give a hundred times as much as each of us, and who moreover gives it?' (p. 82)

Even though they are the king, most powerful and richest people, they are talking about their misfortunes that they had., Voltaire is satirizing the kings that they shouldn't be talking about misfortunes. There are people who are so poor that their life is misfortune, however, they are born with authorities and wealth that they are enough with it.

"He was about to continue, but words failed him when he saw the two girls throw their arms lovingly around the two apes and collapse in tears over their corpses, filling the air with the most pitiful lamentations." (p. 40)

It's irony because, the apes and women were lover, but they were killed by Candide, which wasn't meant. Candide thought apes were hurting the women, but they were actually lovers, which was shocking to him., This is satirized because, usually, people are expected to love the other human, which is the normal love. However, this satirizes that human loving the animal, which satirizes the love.

Parody

"but Pangloss consoled them, assuring everyone that things could not be otherwise: 'This is all for the best,' he said. 'For if there is a volcano beneath Lisbon, then it cannot be anywhere else; for it is impossible for things to be elsewhere than where they are. For all is well. ' (p.15)

Everyone thinks that this world is the the best world of the possible, including Candide and Pangloss, but he thinks it's all for the best., This is satirized because, it's making fun of von Leibniz that it's not the best of all possible worlds. In addition, this is what the whole book talks about.

"He sound like another Pangloss" (p. 64)

It's a parody because, it parodies how Pangloss talks and pangloss acts, which is similar to imitation., Voltaire is satirizing that many people were effected by the Pangloss' optimistic thoughts. However, Voltaire is sick and tired of being too optimistic. He puts Candide as a character who praises Pangloss because Candide is student of Pangloss.

Oxymoron

"They entered a very modest house, for the door was merely of silver and the panelling in the apartments merely of gold, though so tastefully fashioned that the most opulent of workmanship could not have surpassed it. To be sure, the antechamber was encrusted with mere rubies and emeralds; but the skill with which everything was arranged more than justified its bare simplicity. " (p. 46)

This is oxymoron because the house was explained as a modest house, but it actually is the house full of luxury designs and some decorations that shows the wealth. Not normal wealth, but huge wealthiness., This is satirized because, it shows the rich people in society. Rich people, which shows their high social position should have to be the role models of the lower positioned people, not show off their wealthiness. So this tells that it shouldn't be like this.

"Never was anything so gallant, so well accoutred, so dashing, so well drilled as those two armies. Trumpets, fifes, hautboys drums and cannon produced a harmony such as was never heard in hell." (p. 7)

This is oxymoron, because the context is contradictory. Description of harmony is used to show the beautiful sounds showing up together. So, harmony can't be the gallant and sound that is heard in hell., This is satirized because, it is showing how the war sounds like and how the sounds are together in the war.

Understatement

'What a lot of plays there are!' said Candide. 'In Italian, Spanish, French!' - 'Yes,' said the Senator, 'three thousand of them, and not three dozen decent ones.' (p.77 )

It's understatement because, after it said it is explained in Italian, Spanish, and French, Senator tries to talk as it is obvious., It is satirized because, Candide is in low social stand and Senator is. So it shows the difference of education.

"Yet when my mother sold me for ten patagons on the coast of Guinea, she said to me"(pg.49)

It's understatement because, it shows that Candide was sold because he was useless and careless to his mom. Making it "like" simple and obvious., It satirizes the parent's rights. Parents should take care of their own child. They should support their children and be with them, don't sell them like Candide's parents did.

Definition of each literary terms

Allusion: Having reference on people, event, place, etc.

Hyperbole: Showing exaggeration

Irony:Some unexpected events happening and some sarcasm in the meaning.

Parody: It is a imitated copy of the original copy, showing comic effects with exaggeration.

Oxymoron: It's the sentence with contradictory terms and meaning.

Understatement: To exaggerate the meaning of the terms negatively. To make it sound obvious and less important.