Literary Devices used in
by Sarah Park
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Literary Devices used in
Allusion is another literary device when you write a
statement without showing the real definition
behind the sentence. (e.g. If I wanted to make an
allusion of staying up late isn't good, I would
write, 'I got such a bad grade on the test because I
slept late last night.'
pg 51. This philosopher was an honest man; but he had been robbed by his
wife, beaten by his son, and abandoned by his daughter who got a Portuguese
to run away with her. // I count this as an allusion because though the
sentence starts out with saying that this philosopher was an honest man,
Voltaire tries to say his point of saying that though he was honest he wasn't
Voltaire is satirizing violence and
cruelness between people.
pg 56. He entered Paris by the suburb of St. Marceau, and
fancied that he was in the dirtiest village of Westphalia. //
This is an allusion because he fancied that he was in
Westphalia but he was actually meaning Westphalia in a bad
Voltaire is satirizing how places can be
changed to quickly just by a simple touch of
Hyperbole is another literary device you use
when you try to exaggerate an object or a
phase. (e.g. I was so hungry that I could
have eaten a horse.)
pg. 48; They were delighted with possessing
more treasure than all Asia, Europe, and Africa
could scrape together./ This is considered as
an hyperbole because it is exaggerating the
amount of treasure the people were
possessing., Voltaire is trying to satirize
people's greed and craving for
pg 74. "Oh, heavens! at Constantinople! But were she in China I
would fly thither; let us be off." -> This is an hyperbole because
Candide is saying that he can go anywhere in the world, for
Cunegonde. Since he was in Europe, China was obviously very
far., Voltaire was satirizing how love
can make everything come true.
Irony is similar to sarcastic, but sarcasm
changes its name to irony when the humor
becomes mocking. (e.g. She said, "Thank
you" when I told her, her room was a
pg 73. "Oh! what a superior man," said Candide below
his breath. "What a great genius is this Pococurante!
Nothing can please him." -> You can say that this is an
ironical phrase because it Voltaire is mocking
Voltaire satirizes people talking
behind others' backs.
pg 57. "Your tears are misplaced; that is a shocking actress;
the actor who plays with her is yet worse; and the play is still
worse than the actors." -> This dialogue is mocking tears
which makes it an irony phrase.
Voltaire is pointing out the
importance of entertainment during
pg 58. "It means nothing, for they complain of everything with
great fits of laughter; they even do the most detestable things
while laughing." This dialogue mocks the way Parisians laugh
Voltaire is satirizing people's joy.
pg 59. "There are very few good tragedies" ->
Tragedies are 98% negative, but since Voltaire says that
there are 'good tragedies', this is counted as an
Voltaire is trying to say not
everything is hopeless.
pg 49. They embraced with tears. // This is an
oxymoron because the word 'embrace' is commonly
used when people are 'joined' or in an optimistic
Voltaire is trying to say that people
can be joined together by all kinds of
Oxymoron is a literary device you call when you use to opposite
words/ phrases in the same sentence. (e.g. She made a happy
tearing face when she was finished with the test.)
Parody is used when you want to
imitate a story or an act
ironically. (e.g. Eat It is a parody
of Beat It.)
pg 54. "But do you believe," said Candide, "that the earth was
originally a sea, as we find it asserted in that large book
belonging to the captain?" -> This is a parody because
Candide is disagreeing with that book.
Voltaire is satirizing people's
beliefs through materials.
pg 56-57. The priest swore that they would not bury Candide.
Martin swore that he would bury the priest if he continued to
be troublesome. -> This is also a parody because Martin is
making a parody out of what the priest had said.
Voltaire is satirizing friendship.
Understatement is the literary device when
you speak of something better than it actually
is. (e.g. The test was a really big test, but the
person in the story says it's no big deal, only
one test grade.)
pg 48. Yes, sir, it is the custom. They give us a pair of linen
drawers for our whole garment twice a year. When we work at
the sugar canes and the mill snatches hold of a finer, they cut
off the hand; and when we attempt to run away, they cut off the
leg.// This is an understatement because though this is a really
horrible situation, this speaker says it without hesitating and
say that it's just a custom., Voltaire satirizes here of the
cruelness and no rights during that
pg. 79, "Stop! stop! sir," cried Candide. "I will give you
what money you please." -> This is also an
understatement because Candide thinks he can do
everything with money., Voltaire is trying to satirize
people's thoughts that money is