Educational Interventions: Scaffolding

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Educational Interventions: Scaffolding by Mind Map: Educational Interventions: Scaffolding

1. Cognitive Learning

1.1. Piaget

1.1.1. Key Ideas Stages Sensorimotor - Birth to 2 Preoperational - 2 to 7 Concrete Operational - 7 to 11 Formal Operational 11 to adulthood How It Occurs Schemes Assimilation Accommodation Equilibration Constructivism Active Learning Development Precedes Learning

1.1.2. Criticisms Tasks can be taught in earlier stages of development Children are more competent Children learn at different speeds

1.2. Vygotsky

1.2.1. Key Idea Learning Precedes Development Development is linked to input from others Strive for self-regulation 1. Actions and sounds have meaning 2. Practice 3. Use signs to think and solve problems How It Occurs Private Speech Zone of Proximal Development Scaffolding Cooperative Learning Speech is a tool in development How It Works Conversations with adults Early years are important Complex mental acts start as social acts ZPD promotes literacy Play is importnat

1.3. Similarities

1.3.1. Active Learning

1.3.2. Equilibrium

1.3.3. Development declines with increased age

1.3.4. Development occurs with cognitive conflict

1.3.5. Social interaction is necessary for development

1.3.6. The ability to organize information is important

1.3.7. Agree that abstract thought comes later in development

2. Educational Impact

2.1. Vygotsky

2.1.1. Stay within the ZPD Allow for practice time (hints and prompts Do not simplify tasks - gradual interventions Plan for students to work in groups Guided Practice is acceptable in early development.

2.1.2. Cognitive Differences Younger children do not have the ability to address abstract thought. Parent/Teachers must be patient with a child's way of thinking. Older children begin to comprehend abstract issue.

2.1.3. Scaffolding should be implemented to improve educational success. Reciprocal Teaching It is through the tools provided by language that meaning is assigned.

2.1.4. Socioconstruc-model Learning occurs in context Interaction Colaboration

2.1.5. Vygotsky influenced Barbara Rogoff's concept of guided participation

2.2. Piaget

2.2.1. Developmentally Appropriate Education 1. How did the student get to the answer? 2. Active learning - self-initiated 3. Premature teaching is can have adverse effects

2.2.2. Cognitive Differences Preschool Intuitive Thinkers School-Aged Logical Thinkers Develop Problem-Solving Skills Parents/Teachers can use complex speech to communicate ideas Younger vs. Older Younger children cannot play by rule. Older children could agree to follow or change rules. Older students focus on winning. It is important for teachers/parents to let children resolves issues without interference.

3. Vocabulary

3.1. Techniques

3.1.1. Draw That Pic One student verbalizes a picture another attempts to draw it based on a verbal description.

3.1.2. Question-Answer Ball Toss The teacher asks a question, tosses the ball to a student, the student answers and asks another question, and tosses the ball.

3.1.3. Touch and Feel Bag Students reach into a bag. They use adjectives to describe the object they feel.

3.1.4. Information Gap: Same Differenet Each student has a picture. They ask yes and no questions to guess the picture.

3.1.5. Picture Cues New vocabulary is introduced using pictures to assist in comprehension.

3.2. Language Development

3.2.1. Typical Infancy (Birth-2) Listening skills and vocalization of sounds Mimic sounds of words Understand a few common words Early Childhood (2-6) Emphasis on language rules - overregularized Difficulty pronouncing advanced words/sounds Begin to construct verbal narratives Middle Childhood (6-10) Wordplay Conversations about concrete objects Pronunciation Mastery Only see the literal meaning of speech Early Adolescence (10-14) Increased academic vocabulary Look beyond the literal meaning of speech Understand complex sentences Late Life (14-adulthood) Advanced academic vocabulary Master complex vocal inflections Understand figurative language Complex conversations over abstract issues

3.2.2. Atypical Chronic ear infections can cause a child to have difficulty with phonics. If a child cannot remain focused on verbal conversation, the child's development might slow down. A child in a bilingual household could show delays. Speech disorders will become evident. Stronger readers usually have a larger vocabulary.

3.2.3. Promoting Literacy Average child adds 3,000 word a year Encourage the use of sounds and language. Label objects to improve vocabulary understanding. Provide constant feedback to early learners. Stress the importance of sentence structure and speech patterns. Increase the use of academic/complex terms when interacting with children. Use classroom debates to encourage speech.

4. Reading

4.1. Techniques

4.1.1. Pre-teach vocabulary Introduce content vocabulary before reading.

4.1.2. Chunking Dividing a large selection into smaller chunks is the first step. The students then ask questions about the chunk. The roles then reverse.

4.1.3. Echo Reading The teacher or {fluent reading student reads a passage. The child follows along. When the reader pauses, the child echoes what was just read.

4.1.4. Listen-Read-Share The teacher presents information about a specific topic. The students read (in groups or independently) about the subject. The teacher does a follow-up with a clasrr discussion.

4.1.5. Jigsaw Students are assigned a learning task in their group. The meet with other group members with the same task and return to teach their group what they learned.

4.2. Literacy Development

4.2.1. Typical Infancy (Birth-2) Emergent Literacy Explore the feel of books Enjoy pictures in books Early Childhood (2-6) Decoding Letter-Sound Corrilation Comprehend Easy Readers on level Create a lifelong relationship with books Middle Childhood (6-11) Progress from Easy Readers to Chapter Books Decode long/multi-syllabic words Begin to read orally Read for comprehension Early Adolescence (11-14) Read children's novels Understand an accurate representation of the story Intrinsically pleasurable reading Late Life (14-adulthood) Critical Conscuousness Automatic and accurate understanding of text Recognize organization of text Synthesize information Ability to reread and take notes

4.2.2. Promoting Literacy Reading to children Providing printed materials Motivation Answering Questions

4.2.3. Atypical A child's ability to concentrate can influence literacy. Lack of exposure to books can slow literacy in early childhood. Dual language households can increase literacy. Phonological deficits can influence a child's ability to read. Children with special needs may be able to say the words but not comprehend them.

5. Writing

5.1. Techniques

5.1.1. I Do, We Do, You Do The teacher acts as a model for students. Then the students do it as a group and move to independent practice.

5.1.2. Group Story Each student in the class writes down the beginning sentence presented by the teacher. The teacher instructs the students to pass the paper to their neighbor. Each person writes the next line of the story.

5.1.3. Creative Comic Strip Student begin to have fun with writing by creating their own comic characters and writing a comic strip.

5.1.4. Sentence Building These activities are designed to encourage struggling writers to participate in the writing process.

5.1.5. Peer Review Student review and edit the work produced by peers. It allows them to interact with peers and gain knowledge of the writing process.

5.2. Written Development

5.2.1. Typical Mimic Writing (Birth - 2) Scribbles Awareness of writing utinsils Early Childhood (2-6) Increase muscular control in writing Psudowriting Write own name and most of the alphabet Inverted Spelling Middle Childhood (6-10) Increased handwriting skills Letter-sound awareness Simple narrative writing Lack ability to see errors in own writing Early Adolescence (10-14) Expository Writing More complex writing structures Does not like to edit writing Later Life (14-adulthood) In depth writing on a specific topic Organizational skills improve Able to revise and edit as development increases

5.2.2. Atypical Children that never see things written might not be able to develop in mimic process. Visual impairments might cause a lack awareness of writing style. A lack of exposure to writing can slow written development. Dyslexia is a factor of writing development. Better readers make better writers. Children with phonological deficits have a hard time making letter-sound relationships.

5.2.3. Promoting Literacy Make writing utensils avaliable Let children act out stories Encourage authentic writing Introduce different forms of writing Build up to more complex forms of writing Practice more complex skills Teach organization and planning

6. Characteristics of Scaffolding

6.1. Common Goal

6.2. Ongoing Analysis

6.3. Interaction

6.4. Transfer of Responsibility