Socials 9 - Ashley

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Socials 9 - Ashley by Mind Map: Socials 9 - Ashley

1. Industrial Revolution

1.1. The Industrial Revolution started in the 18th century (the 1700's). It was a time of change in the way people lived and the way they made things.

1.1.1. Most changed happened in factories where cloth was made.

1.2. New machines were invented.

1.3. Tiny villages grew into cities and towns.

1.3.1. People moved from farms to the cities/towns.

1.4. Farming improved.

1.5. Improvements in transportation.

1.6. The Industrial Revolution didn't improve the life of kids.

1.6.1. Children had to work in mines or factories because their small bodies were seen as perfect for operating machines or for crawling into small places underground.

2. New France

2.1. By 1663 the two main fur trading companies in New France (the Company of 100 associates and the Company of Habitants) were having problems.

2.1.1. Went into debt and owed everyone money. Debt: The name for money that is owed to other people or companies.

2.2. Fur trading went down because the beaver had been over-trapped.

2.3. The Fur Trading partners (the Hurons) were having problems with the diseases brought by the Europeans.

2.3.1. They were also being attacked by another native group, the Iroquois.

2.4. All of these events caused King Louis XIV to take over the colony of New France.

2.4.1. He ruled it just as if it were a province of France. Louis XIV chose Jean-Baptiste Colbert to look after New France but he was to do this while still living in France, not New France.

2.5. People of Quebec had no rights because Louis XIV was an absolute monarch.

2.5.1. Absolute Monarch: A king or queen who has unlimited power over the people. This head of state is not limited by rules, parliament, or any form of government.

3. The Catholic Church

3.1. Catholic: Means including or welcoming everyone; when it was formed in 300-600 AD. The Catholic Church included everyone.

3.2. After the death of Jesus Christ, churches began to be formed in the holy land.

3.2.1. Some of these churches spread to other countries such as modern day Italy, Greece, Turkey, Egypt, Iraq or Syria.

3.3. By 1000 AD many of these churches had changed somewhat and were separate from other churches.

3.3.1. AD: Anno Domini (Latin, meaning 'year of our lord'). Shows the number of years after the birth of Jesus Christ. This dating is mostly used in European countries.

3.4. There was the Roman Catholic Church in the west and the orthodox Church in the East.

3.4.1. Orthodox: A group of churches that have beliefs dating back to the birth of Christ and that have slightly different beliefs than Roman Catholics.

3.5. By the mid-1400's, the Catholic Church was having problems in Europe. Many people didn't like what its leaders were doing.

3.5.1. Because of this the church once again split. One group was the Roman Catholic Church, the other was the Protestant Church. This church got it's name from the "protests" it's leaders made about the Catholic Church.

4. Making France Strong and Becoming Emperor

4.1. In 1799 Napoleon helped overthrow the French republican government, the directory which had become corrupt.

4.2. Napoleon gave himself the title "First Consul" and went about restoring France's legal system and to create a legal code for the whole of France.

4.3. His new civil code set out rights of equality and property, as well as freedom of religion and choice.

4.3.1. This code is still used today in areas such as Civil Law in Quebec and in Louisiana. Civil Law: The law that relates to a person's rights and liberties (as opposed to criminal law).

4.4. His great reforms however, do not excuse his tyrannical ambitions.

4.4.1. Tyrannical: Exercising power in a cruel or arbitrary way.

4.5. In 1804 Napoleon had complete person control of France, including a secret police. With this power he crowned himself "Emperor of France".

4.6. Napoleon used his power to censor the law, media and even the education system to reflect his own ideas and opinions.

5. Abdication and Exile

5.1. After Napoleon defeated Russia, he faced an increase in the attacks against his empire.

5.2. His enemies grew stronger and despite several Napoleon victories, they kept the pressued up and forced him out of France.

5.2.1. Napoleon was replaced by Louis XVII (King Louis XIV's brother), who was an ineffective and unpopular ruler.

5.3. Napoleon escaped his island exile of Elba after ten months and returned to France more popular than ever.

5.3.1. The countries of Europe were scared of a strong Napoleon and allied against him at the battle of Waterloo. Waterloo was one of the most famous battles in history and Napoleon was narrowly defeated. He was then sentenced to exile to the island of St. Helena where he died eventually.

5.4. The major remaining powers at the congress of Vienna tried to redraw the map of Europe to insure that no country could dominate the continent as Napoleon and France had.

5.5. Abdication: When a Monarch gives up their power.

6. Introducation and Hudson's Bay Company

6.1. Canada was a nation that was founded on the exploration of its resources such as furs, fish and timber.

6.2. The majority of the exploration of Canada was done by traders who actively sought trading relationships with Native peoples.

6.3. Huge trading companies explored, mapped and in many ways governed over immense parts of Canada with the sole purpose of profit.

6.4. French Cours De Bois helped found the HBC.

6.4.1. They were able to sign a trading monopoly based upon all the lands that drained into the Hudson's Bay (Rupert's Land). Monopoly: The exclusive possession or control of the supply or trade in a commodity or service.

6.5. The HBC set up lots of trading forts and the Native traders would bring the valuable furs to them.

6.5.1. The furs were exchanged into money to tokens called "MB's" that could be used in the company store.

7. The Government of Canada: How is it Organized?

7.1. There are three levels of Government in Canada.

7.1.1. The municipal government is made up of people from your neighbourhood, town or city. The municipal government is responsible for things like collecting garbage, running the community centres and removing snow. The head of a municipal government is the mayor. The provincial government is made up of people from different parts of the province. They're responsible for things like schools, health, care and police. The head of the provincial government is called the Premier. The Federal government is made up of people from every province in Canada. They're responsible for things like the army and dealing with other countries. The head of the Federal government is called the Prime Minister.

7.2. In order for a society to operate we need someone to set rules and provide services to insure that the people are educated, protected and provided with the minimal services needed for survival such as health care and education.

7.3. The government is essentially there to insure that our personal freedoms are protected and allows individuals to work with an organized society which will allow them to find jobs or create their own work in order to provide for themselves and their families.

7.4. A government's responsibility is to its citizens.

7.5. Government: The political direction and control exercised over citizens of a particular state or country: Government is necessary to the existence of civilized society.

8. The American Revolution

8.1. The American colonists in N.A were often seen as trouble to the Brits who were getting tired of paying the cost of keeping peace.

8.1.1. The colonists didn't like the Brits imposing taxes and making deals with the French and Natives Peoples without consulting them.

8.2. The Quebec act, Stamp Act, Boston Massacre, and Boston Tea Party were all events that lead to the American Revolution.

8.2.1. The Quebec Act: Formally known as "British North America" was an act of parliament. Stamp Act: Made Americans pay a small tax on many goods and most government services. Boston Tea Party: Led by colonial leaders and the "Sons of Liberty." They threw the tea in the harbour to protest the new Tea Act.

8.3. The Americans were given help by the French in the way of troops, weapons and ships. With these combined they eventually defeated the Brits.

8.3.1. The result was anew nation made up of 13 different colonies or "states" that would join together and form the USA.

9. The War of 1812

9.1. There were lots of "War Hawks" in America. They wanted war with Britain and wanted to fulfil their idea of "Manifest Destiny".

9.1.1. Not all Americans were as excited as the "War Hawks". "War Hawks": People who wanted war.

9.2. The BNA British forces were smaller but had better organization and better leadership. They pushed back the Yanks during the first year of the war.

9.3. The British were able to bribe the great American General of the American Revolution to switch sides and fight for them.

9.4. The British and the Yankees each won and lost lots of battles and burned each other's capitals. In the end the British were able to send more troops to Canada and the war ended at a draw.

10. Regions and Society

10.1. Democracy always had to be fought for throughout human history. In Britain the first step was the Magna Carta which was signed in 1215.

10.1.1. Magna Carta: The great charter which guaranteed the English people certain civil rights.

10.2. Even with the Magna Carta, people still had to fight for their democratic rights.

10.3. The British monarchy accepted the democratic traditions of the people, but after Queen Elizabeth's death, King James VI came to power and he fought the parliament for control of the country.

10.4. They eventually went to war against their King which created a civil war that would eventually lead Britain to a constitutional monarchy (a democratic country with a King or Queen).

10.5. At the time of Queen Elizabeth's death Britain defeated their major rival (Spain) for control of the world's oceans.

10.6. Britain had always been a "class" society with its people belong to either Upper, Middle, or Lower classes of society.

10.6.1. The upper classes lived comfortably and the Middle classes worked hard to better themselves financially. Majority of the population were Lower class workers who worked long hours for little pay.

11. The Stuarts and the Fight with Parliament

11.1. When Queen Elizabeth died in 1603, James VI of Scotland took the throne and renamed himself as King James I.

11.1.1. James, like his song Charles who followed him believed in the "Divine Right of Kings" and their "God given right to rule".

11.2. The Stuarts didn't have much regard for Parliament and the Puritans and only seemed to provoke them as well as the rest of the English population.

11.3. Charles I was even more aloof and even more narrow-minded than his father.

11.3.1. He had a great lifestyle and was always causing problems and asking Parliament for money. When the Parliament gave conditions to the money he wanted, he found different ways to do it. He tried to rule England without the Parliament and had little success.

12. The Glorious Revolution and John Locke

12.1. Charles II died in 1685 and was succeeded by his Catholic brother James II.

12.2. James believed in his "Divine Right" to rule and didn't let the Test Act stop him from appointing Catholics into high government positions.

12.3. Parliament decided to choose their own monarch and invited James' daughter Mary and her husband William to take over as King and Queen.

12.3.1. James eventually abdicated his throne to his daughter and her husband and this change of monarchs is known as the "Glorious Revolution".

12.4. James II was kicked out of England and John Locke who was a famous political and philosophical writer returned.

12.4.1. Locke wrote a lot of books that outlined individual civil rights and his ideas were picked up in both France and America and helped start revolutions there.

13. Arrival in Canada

13.1. Europeans began arriving in Canada as early as the 11th century with Leif Erikson's settlement in Vineland (Newfoundland).

13.1.1. Further exploration of Canada would have to wait until the imperial countries such as England, France and Spain began searching for a western short cut to Asia.

13.2. Viking and the later European colonial countries established contact with the local native populations.

13.3. By the end of the 1400's, England, Spain and France were all looking west for routes to Asia to compete with Portugal.

13.4. Columbus discovered North America for the Europeans, but nobody knew or realized how large the continent was.

13.5. North America would eventually prove to be a major obstacle to a western route to Asia, but would instead provide Europe with many other riches like furs, fish, and raw resources.

14. The Royal Province of New France

14.1. When Champlain died in 1635 only a few French lived in New France, but by 1661 the King of France was determined to establish a strong mercantile colony.

14.1.1. Mercantilism essentially meant that a colonial or mother country should accumulate as much wealth as possible by taking raw materials from its colonies, and then producing finished products that it can either sell back to the colony or to other countries for a profit.

14.2. Canada was rich in raw materials like fish, timber and some finished products like barrels.

14.3. The King sent over fresh troops to "deal with" the Iroquois and established a royal government to "deal with" the local settlers.

14.4. People from the Church followed and used the new colony to help them convert people to Christianity.

15. 17th-18th Century France and it's Peoples

15.1. The French Revolution is still referred to today as an example of how far people will go to achieve political and social freedom.

15.2. France is one of the largest European countries and is bordered by the English Channel to the north, the bay of Biscay and the Atlantic Ocean to the west and by the Mediterranean to the south.

15.3. French Society in the 17th century was still very much like a feudal society. A very small portion of the population owned the majority of the land and wealth while the largest portion of the population lived a hard, poor life.

15.4. Paris was the country's largest city and was home to every class of French society, from the wealthy Aristocrats, the Bourgeoisie or middle class businessmen, to the poor peasants.

15.4.1. Paris was a very expensive city to live in. Inflation caused such staples as flour to become so expensive the people were soon spending over half of their income on food.

15.5. The Government cared little and did almost nothing to help the economy of France.

15.5.1. As a result, Paris and France lacked decent roads, and other means of communications and travel that would have helped everyone.

16. Louis XIV and Marie Antoinette

16.1. Louis XIV (14th) ruled France for over 70 years starting at the age of 7 and gave himselfe the nickname "The sun King".

16.2. Louis did little for his country and was an ineffective ruler who preferred to live a life of luxury and excess.

16.3. He fuelled the religious troubles of his country by persecuting Protestants and by claiming that he had special rights within the Roman Catholic Church.

16.4. Marie Antoinette was the Austrian bride of Louis XVI and was a very unpopular Queen.

16.5. Marie was strong willed and opinionated, but had no learning or experiences on which to base her judgements.

17. The Enlightenment

17.1. The 18th century was a period in history where people questioned the world around them, their religious beliefs and how their society was organized.

17.1.1. The intellectuals who led the way with this questioning and thinking were sometimes referred to as "Philosophes" or philosophers.

17.2. French philosophers were influenced by the movements towards democracy in Britain and the United States as well as by the English intellectuals like Issac Newton and John Locke.

17.3. Montesquieu believed that a monarch had to work with elected parliaments.

17.3.1. Rousseau spoke against a growing modern society. He believed that the more civilized people became, the farther they left their links to the natural world behind.

17.4. These philosophers as well as others, helped push forth the ideas of democracy and free speech that we live by today.

18. The Reign of Terror

18.1. Many people joined political clubs during the Revolution, they often spearheaded some of the revolutionary changes that were happening to how the French governed themselves.

18.1.1. Three of the most influential political clubs were the Girondists, Jacobins, and the Sans Culottes.

18.2. The Girondists and the Jacobins were mostly middle class political clubs that wanted changes in the French government.

18.3. The San Culottes were made up of mostly poor people of Paris and larger cities. They supported radicals like the Jacobins.

18.4. After the execution of the King, people like the Girondists were persecuted in what is known as the Reign of Terror.

18.5. During the years of 1793-1794 over 37000 people were executed at the hands of Robespierre and his fellow radicals the Jacobins.

18.5.1. Robespierre destroyed all opposition to the new French government and made changes, but eventually people began to fear the power that he held and he to was guillotined.

18.6. France bloodied itself with its monarchy, aristocrats, moderates, radicals and just about everyone else. Without an established strong government or leader, France was ripe for a you military leader that would eventually declare himself "Emperor of France".