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[R] R: A Language and Environment for Statistical Computing by Mind Map: [R]
R: A Language and 
Environment for 
Statistical Computing
5.0 stars - 1 reviews range from 0 to 5

[R] R: A Language and Environment for Statistical Computing

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Packages and related projects

Additional Packages

Unit Test, RUnit, svUnit

Documentation, ROxygen, DOxygen like documentation system, Lyx ?, odfWeave, sweave, R code in LaTeX documents

GUIs, Rattle (R GUI for data-mining), JGR, R console in Java

Graphics, grid, low level graphic system (line, box, text), graph annotations, unusual graphic representation, lattice, multiple graphics on the same viewport, automatic generation on layout based on partition fields, zoo, irregular time series management,,, ggplot2, plotting system for R, based on the grammar of graphics,,

Statistics, vcd, Multidimentional data manipulation (treemaps)


With other tools, RGGobi, integration with GGobi : statistical data grapher, RWeka, integration with Weka (data-mining tool)

Text Editors, Eclipse plugin StatET, A guide to Eclipse and StatET, Emacs ESS, Tinn-R : dedicated editor

Scripting, Python : rpy, RScript, littler

Other langages, native support of C, rJava, Use R code from Java code, connect to the R server through RMI, JavaGD, Use R graphic functions from Java classes

Based on R

Yeroon : web-based graphics application

Get started!

Download R

download the precompiled binary distribution of R

Go to the R web site, select a CRAN mirror site and download the base distribution

Start a R session

Start the R system, the main window (RGui) with a sub window (R Console) will appear

In the `Console' window the cursor is waiting for you to type in some R commands

For example, use R as a simple calculator : 1 + sin(3)

Learn R

Getting Started

R Basics

An introduction to R

R by example

Simples graphs

R Help Center

Histograms and lattice

More on R

Basic drawing with grid

Frames, environments and scopes

Quick R, for people who are experienced users of other stat packages like SAS, SPSS, Stata, and Systat

S3 classes and methods

Writing functions in R


R for programmers

Introduction to HighPerformance R

Time Series


Reference Card

Function Finder

Jonathan Baron's R Help page

R Help


De facto standard among statisticians for the development of statistical software and data analysis tools


an effective data handling and storage facility, ...

a suite of operators for calculations on arrays, in particular matrices, ...

a large, coherent, integrated collection of intermediate tools for data analysis, ...

graphical facilities for data analysis and display either on-screen or on hardcopy, and ...

a well-developed, simple and effective programming language which includes conditionals, loops, user-defined recursive functions and input and output facilities.



human genome


social media

R Graph samples

*, R graphic, R graphic

*, *, R Graphic, R Graphic, R graphic


Open Source implementation of S

S, Statistical computing language, Graphival Capabilities, Created at Bell Labs, Commercial

History of S, Old S : 1975-1984, Implemented in Fortran, Macros, S3 : 1988-1991, Reimplemented in C, Functions, Informal classes and methods, S4 : 1998-, Advanced object-oriented features, Interfaces with Java, Corba ..., S-Plus 5 : 2000

Additions from Scheme

lexical scoping

one a the Lisp dialects, Garbage Collection, First class Functions, Dynamic Typing, Homoiconicity, primary representation of programs is also a data structure in a primitive type of the language itself

created at the University of Auckland, New Zealand,

by Ross Ihaka

by Robert Gentleman

Starting 1975

involving John Chambers, Rick Becker, Doug Dunn, Paul Tukey, and Graham Wilkinson


R Project

Developed by the R Development Core Team, is part of the GNU project, under the GNU General Public License

R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna, Austria.

ISBN 3-900051-07-0

Web site :

Package repositories

Comprehensive R Archive Network (CRAN), CRAN is a network of ftp and web servers around the world that store identical, up-to-date, versions of code and documentation for R

R-Forge, central platform for the development of R packages and R-related software, hosts many unpublished, beta packages and development versions of CRAN packages.

Crantastic, community site for rating and reviewing all CRAN packages

CRANberries, new and updates packages

Other repositories, Omega

Search Engines

R Site Search


Task Views page, Summarizes packages that are especially useful for selected topics

Dan Goldstein's search page, Goocle custom search and Rollyo

News and documentation

R Manuals

R Wiki

R Journal, The R Journal is the refereed journal of the R project for statistical computing.

R Developer Page

R on Wikipedia

Forums and code databases

R Graph Gallery

R Graphical Manual

R Mailing list Archive

R forum on Nabble

R on Stackoverflow


Planet R, Blog aggregator

R Cookbook


useR! 2010

useR! 2009

Commercialized versions




as a PageFlake

What is R ?

R is a programming language ...

Functional programming, treats computation as the evaluation of mathematical functions, avoids state and mutable data., functions can't have side effects

Lexical scoping, a variable always refers to its top-level environment, allows to reason as if variable bindings were carried out by substitution, it requires each function value to carry with it a record of the values of the variables that it depends on, closure, the location of each value is known at compile time.

Extensibility, add additional functionality by defining new R functions., can be extended via packages, Package repository, User-submitted packages, 1,600 different packages, Advanced users can write C code to manipulate R objects directly

Vectorization of all data, Easy manipulation of vectors, matrices and data table, Mathematical calculations on vectors, Concatenation and set operations, Summary outputs the basic statistics for any kind of data structure, Map (apply), Reduce, Filter ..., names lines and columns, Data Types, Double, Integer, Complex, complex(5,real=2,im=6), Logical, TRUE / FALSE, Character, A collection of characters between double quotes, For example "A" or "text", Factor, Used to represent categorical data (i.e. data of which the value range is a collection of codes)., For example: variable `blood type' with values: A, AB and O., Dates and times, Misc operations and formats, Missing data and Infinite values, NA, Inf, -Inf

Homoiconicity, primary representation of programs is also a data structure in a primitive type of the language itself

Object oriented, S3 ECMA style classes (prototypes), S4 advanced object oriented support, Classes are used for inheritance and to maintain object state

Garbage Collector

Data Structures, Vector, object that consists of a number of elements of the same type, type is dynamically evaluated, Matrix, matrix can be regarded as a generalization of a vector, Array, Arrays are generalizations of vectors and matrices., A vector is a one-dimensional array and a matrix is a two dimensional array, DataFrame, Data frames can be regarded as an extension to matrices., Data frames can have columns of di fferent data types and are the most convenient data structure for data analysis in R, Time-Series, combines two components: - The data, a vector or matrix of numeric value - The dates of the data, the dates are equispaced points in time (regular tie series), A package provides functions to deal with irregular time series (monitoring data for instance), List, A list is like a vector. However, an element of a list can be an object of any type and structure, A list can contain another list and therefore it can be used to construct arbitrary data structures

... and a software environment ...

Command Line Interface, Run programs stored in script files

Graphical User Interface, R console RGUI, Interactive shell, View data, View graphics

CrossPlatform, Windows, Unix/Linux, Mac OS

Fully planned and coherent system, Packages, standardized units for extending R, Package metadata : title, author, description, dependencies ..., Standardized package structure, easy to install through the CRAN repository, Name Spaces, Source Forge, Qualification Tests, Standardized check through R CMD check, Code and documentation check, Documentation, Package's vignettes, integrated text document (LaTeX or noweb), provide online documentation and executable samples, R knows how to extract certain metadata (e.g., title and keywords) and the R code inside them, Online documentation, ?functionname, help, search ..., executable examples

... for statistical computing

domain specific language, statistical computing, classification, clustering, time-series analysis, classical statistical tests, linear and nonlinear modeling, graphics, On Screen and Printable, LaTeX-like documents, mathematical symbols, High Quality plots

R is a Free Software


This document has been written by Claude Falguière in December 2009

Please let me know if information on this map is false or need be updated

Associated post for comments :

Thanks to all the Web sites that are listed in the map and were usefull to collect and verify information