Life After Death & Mind and Body

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Life After Death & Mind and Body by Mind Map: Life After Death & Mind and Body

1. DUALISM

1.1. Plato

1.1.1. Mind and body are separate

1.1.2. Soul is imortal and without parts

1.1.3. Soul has knowledge of the FORMS

1.1.4. Soul has 3 important aspects (p.242)

1.1.4.1. Reason

1.1.4.2. Spirit

1.1.4.3. Desire or mercenary

1.1.5. Soul is imprisoned in our body and set free when we die

1.2. Aristotle

1.2.1. Soul is mortal, when the body dies so does the soul

1.2.2. eg. Imprint in wax - you can not separate the imprint from the wax.

1.2.3. Soul is the form and shape of the body

1.2.3.1. Soul gives shape to the body

1.2.3.2. Soul gives the 'life force' to the body

1.2.4. Faculties of the soul

1.2.4.1. Nutrition

1.2.4.2. Perception

1.2.4.3. Desire

1.2.4.4. Movement

1.2.4.5. Intellect

1.2.4.5.1. This distinguishes human beings from everything else.

2. MATERIALISM

2.1. Dawkins (I love him)

2.1.1. Hard Materialist - no life after death in any form.

2.1.2. Evolutionary biologist (neo-darwinist)

2.1.3. No soul

2.1.4. No God

2.1.5. The body is a 'survival machine' for our genes

2.1.6. No survival post-mortem

2.1.7. Personality is dictated to us by our genes and external social factors (family etc)

2.2. Hick

2.2.1. Soft Materialist - no soul as such but some form of existance of after death (recreation theory)

2.2.1.1. HE IS NOT A DUALIST

2.2.2. Mind and body can't be separated

2.2.2.1. Psycho-somatic unity

2.2.3. Links to the Christian idea of resurrection and St. Paul's teachings

2.2.4. Replica theory or recreation theory is his best known idea

2.2.4.1. We are replicated in a 'different space' which is observable by God but not by us

2.2.4.2. The replica of ourselves is not a copy, we can only exist in one place at a time.

2.2.4.3. Our replica has the same consciousness, memory, emotion and volition (ability to make choices)

2.2.4.4. He used an example to demonstrate

2.2.4.4.1. Man in London disappears and turns up in New York

2.2.4.4.2. The man in New York is the same person in every respect

2.2.4.4.3. The arrangement of the person is exactly the same

2.2.4.4.4. There is continuity in the memories etc between him in London and him in New York

3. RELIGION

3.1. Christianity

3.1.1. Main beliefs

3.1.1.1. Jesus rose from the dead, this forms the basis of Christian belief

3.1.1.1.1. Jesus is somehow different

3.1.1.1.2. Body is changed, disciples initially don't recognise him

3.1.1.1.3. But, he is risen physically, just that he is transformed

3.1.1.2. At death, soul is separated from body until the day of judgement

3.1.1.3. Clear that our bodies are resurrected, not just our soul

3.1.1.4. Afterlife is paradise

3.1.1.5. God offers forgiveness for those that repent

3.1.1.6. End of physical life, start of a new stage

3.1.2. Heaven and Hell

3.1.2.1. There is a basic idea of heaven - where you go if you're good

3.1.2.1.1. It is a state of fulfilment

3.1.2.1.2. Ultimate goal of human beings

3.1.2.2. The idea of hell - separation from God also exists within Xian belief.

3.1.2.2.1. Place of punishment

3.1.2.2.2. Aspect of God's justice

3.1.2.2.3. But, doesn't back up the idea of a loving God

3.1.2.2.4. Punishment appears unjust

3.1.2.2.5. Where is it (if it's a physical place)?

3.2. Hinduism

3.2.1. Reincarnation/rebirth

3.2.1.1. Main beliefs

3.2.1.1.1. Soul is eternal

3.2.1.1.2. Soul is reborn into a body time after time

3.2.1.1.3. Better life = better body next time

3.2.1.1.4. All living things have a soul

3.2.1.1.5. The karma affecting your current life is carried into the next

3.2.1.1.6. The ultimate goal is to be reunited with Brahman

3.2.1.2. Possible evidence

3.2.1.2.1. People recalling previous lives

3.2.1.2.2. Deja vu

3.2.1.3. Challenges

3.2.1.3.1. How can you be a good worm/lion/seagull?

3.2.1.3.2. No continuity evident between the last life and the next life (Swinburne)

3.2.1.3.3. Not able to make a link to a dead person - soul carries no qualities from the last life to the next (Geach)

4. PROBLEMS

4.1. No evidence to suggest life after death

4.2. No one can survive death, as you lead a physical existence, not a spiritual one.

4.3. Russell

4.3.1. Product of wishful thinking

4.3.2. It's a person's memory who makes them what they are. The body rots once you are dead.

4.3.3. The universe couldn't give a monkey's if you exist or not

4.3.4. Life is better understood without God and an afterlife