Map of Western Philosophy

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Map of Western Philosophy by Mind Map: Map of Western Philosophy

1. 7. Renaissance 1400-1630

1.1. 1. Nicholas of Cusa 1401-1464

1.1.1. Place

1.1.2. History

1.1.3. Works

1.1.4. Theory

1.2. 2. Erasumus 1466-1536

1.2.1. Place

1.2.2. History

1.2.3. Works

1.2.4. Theory

1.2.4.1. Opposed strong enthusiasms

1.3. 3. Niccolo Machiavelli 1469-1527

1.3.1. Place

1.3.2. History

1.3.2.1. Inventor of Political Science

1.3.3. Works

1.3.3.1. The Prince

1.3.3.1.1. "It is better to be feared than to be loved, because love is fickle but fear is constant.

1.3.3.1.2. Reputation for honesty, integrity is important

1.3.3.1.3. But not the practice of it.

1.3.4. Theory

1.4. 4. Thomas More 1478-1535

1.4.1. Place

1.4.2. History

1.4.3. Works

1.4.3.1. Utopia

1.4.3.1.1. Mocked modern English society

1.4.3.1.2. All property is communal

1.4.3.1.3. Marriage is by love, not arranged

1.4.3.1.4. Elected parliament

1.4.3.1.5. Price elected for life

1.4.3.1.6. War for 3 Reasons

1.4.3.1.7. Moral Theory focused on happiness

1.4.4. Theory

1.5. 5. Giordano Bruno 1548-1600

1.5.1. Place

1.5.2. History

1.5.3. Works

1.5.4. Theory

1.6. 6. Francis Suarez 1548-1617

1.6.1. Place

1.6.2. History

1.6.3. Works

1.6.4. Theory

1.7. 7. Francis Bacon 1561-1626

1.7.1. Place

1.7.2. History

1.7.3. Works

1.7.4. Theory

1.7.4.1. Sought to separate religion from natural philosophy

1.7.4.2. Stressed Induction and Experimetnal Methods

2. 8. Modern I 1580-1780

2.1. 1. Hobbes 1588-1679

2.1.1. Place

2.1.2. History

2.1.3. Works

2.1.3.1. Leviathan

2.1.4. Theory

2.1.4.1. We are guided by passions, not reason

2.1.4.2. Passions

2.1.4.2.1. Desire for Power

2.1.4.2.2. Fear of Death

2.1.4.3. Government is a means of escaping struggle between power and fear

2.1.4.4. Governments derive their power from the subjects in exchange for peace and security

2.1.4.5. The Social Contract

2.2. 2. Descartes 1596-1650

2.2.1. Place

2.2.2. History

2.2.3. Works

2.2.4. Theory

2.2.4.1. "Cogito ergo sum"

2.2.4.1.1. The most basic of all ideas, the existence of which cannot be disputed

2.2.4.2. Two Proofs of God

2.2.4.2.1. A perfect being could only come from a perfect being.

2.2.4.2.2. From necessity: a perfect being must have existence to be perfect.

2.2.4.3. Dualist (Mind/Body Dualism)

2.3. 3. Pascal 1623-1662

2.3.1. Place

2.3.2. History

2.3.3. Works

2.3.4. Theory

2.4. 4. Spinoza 1632-1677

2.4.1. Place

2.4.2. History

2.4.3. Works

2.4.4. Theory

2.4.4.1. Freewill is a logical impossibility because all causes have precedents

2.4.4.2. Rejected dualism of Descartes

2.5. 5. Locke 1632-1704

2.5.1. Place

2.5.2. History

2.5.3. Works

2.5.4. Theory

2.5.4.1. Politics

2.5.4.1.1. A man is free when he is subject only to political authority to which he has consented.

2.5.4.1.2. Natural liberty is freedom from the arbitrary power of others

2.5.4.1.3. Beginning of modern democratic political theory.

2.5.4.1.4. Denies need for authoritarian power, which leads to despotism and tyranny

2.5.4.1.5. Denies that fear is the primary motivator of men

2.5.4.1.6. Natural Rights

2.5.4.1.7. Men are governed by laws from a legislature

2.5.4.1.8. Opposed monarchies

2.5.4.1.9. Modern social contract theory

2.5.4.1.10. Stressed that equality was legal equality, not equality of material possessions.

2.5.4.2. Knowledge/Epistomology

2.5.4.2.1. Empericist

2.5.4.2.2. Ideas are acquired via experience

2.5.4.2.3. Two forms of experience

2.5.4.2.4. There are no innate ideas

2.5.4.2.5. The mind is a Tabula Rasa

2.5.4.3. Ethics

2.5.4.3.1. Ethics are learned, not innate

2.5.4.3.2. Ethics are derived from experience, and thus relative to our experience of the world

2.6. 6. Malebranche 1638-1715

2.6.1. Place

2.6.2. History

2.6.3. Works

2.6.4. Theory

2.7. 7. Leibniz 1646-1716

2.7.1. Place

2.7.2. History

2.7.2.1. Early developer of formal/algebraic logic

2.7.2.2. Co-inventory of Infinitesimal Calculus

2.7.3. Works

2.7.3.1. Théodicée

2.7.3.1.1. Reason and faith are gifts from God

2.7.3.1.2. Sin and Suffering are the result of metaphysical imperfections

2.7.3.1.3. Although God has unlimited reason and willpower, humans do not which makes sin and suffering possible.

2.7.3.2. Metaphyics - La Monadologie

2.7.3.2.1. An attempt to resolve the problem of mind/body dualism

2.7.3.2.2. Nothing arises from nothing

2.7.3.2.3. Everything that exists has a reason to exist

2.7.3.2.4. Everything which exists is better than anything non-existent

2.7.4. Theory

2.7.4.1. Asserted "The best of all possible worlds"

2.8. 8. Berkeley 1685-1753

2.8.1. Place

2.8.2. History

2.8.3. Works

2.8.4. Theory

2.8.4.1. There is no existence independent of perception

2.8.4.2. To exist is to be perceived

2.8.4.3. Disagreed with Locke's argument that human knowledge depends on the existence of material objects independent of minds.

2.8.4.4. Claimed that materialism was dogmatic superstition.

2.8.4.5. All of our ideas are derived from our experiences

2.9. 9. Hume 1711-1776

2.9.1. Place

2.9.2. History

2.9.3. Works

2.9.4. Theory

2.9.4.1. Epistemology

2.9.4.1.1. Ideas are copies of our sense impressions

2.9.4.1.2. Three relations among ideas

2.9.4.1.3. Reason alone cannot justify our belief in experience

2.9.4.1.4. Belief in our experiences as representing the external world accurately is based on our instinct or custom, and cannot be proven with reason.

2.9.4.2. Morality

2.9.4.2.1. Scientific theory of morality

2.9.4.2.2. Moral judgment cannot be based on rational deliberation, because simpletons and infants are also capable of making more judgments.

2.9.4.2.3. There is no evidence that indicates that the most intellectually capable members of our species are the most moral.

2.9.4.2.4. Therefore, our sense of morality is based in part on our biology and in part by our social context.

2.9.4.2.5. What makes a moral rule a universal more rule?

2.9.4.2.6. We have a natural appreciation for virtuous behavior, and are thus naturally moral at least in part.

2.9.4.3. Religion

2.9.4.3.1. Basing religious belief on inference from experience has four flaws

2.9.4.3.2. Effects do not prove a cause.

2.9.4.3.3. In the end, Hume is dismissive of both religion in general and in the ability to base religious belief on experience.

3. 9. Enlightenmnet 1640-1800

3.1. 1. Bayle 1647-1706

3.1.1. Place

3.1.2. History

3.1.3. Works

3.1.4. Theory

3.2. 2. Vico 1668-1744

3.2.1. Place

3.2.2. History

3.2.3. Works

3.2.4. Theory

3.3. 3. Christian Wolff 1679-1754

3.3.1. Place

3.3.2. History

3.3.3. Works

3.3.4. Theory

3.4. 4. Voltaire 1694-1778

3.4.1. Place

3.4.2. History

3.4.3. Works

3.4.4. Theory

3.5. 5. Rousseau 1712-1778

3.5.1. Place

3.5.2. History

3.5.3. Works

3.5.4. Theory

3.5.4.1. Critiqued the progress of modern society

3.5.4.1.1. Moral decadence always accompanies cultural progress

3.5.4.1.2. American Indians in their simplistic life compare favorably to Europeans in their levels of happiness and virtue.

3.5.4.2. Claimed that enlightenment beliefs led to eventual collapse of civilizations

3.5.4.3. Called for a return to nature

3.5.4.4. Social Contract

3.5.4.4.1. All power is given to the state

3.5.4.4.2. Your happiness is calculated as your share of the overall societal happiness

3.6. 6. Adam Smith 1723-1790

3.6.1. Place

3.6.2. History

3.6.3. Works

3.6.4. Theory

3.6.4.1. The Wealth of Nations: The Division of Labor

3.6.4.1.1. Specialization of job function leads to massive gains in efficiency.

3.6.4.1.2. Coordination and cooperation between specialists is done out of self-interest.

3.6.4.1.3. We get what we need from others out of their self-interest, not their charity.

3.6.4.2. The Theory of Moral Sentiment

3.6.4.2.1. Offers an explanation and basis for the cooperation and coordination that are required for the division of labor described in Wealth of Nations.

3.6.4.2.2. Why?

3.6.4.2.3. Obeying the law

3.6.4.3. Worries

3.6.4.3.1. He was aware of the dangers and problems that could arise from too much specialization of labor and the social isolation that could result.

3.6.4.3.2. He worried about the moral impact on someone who shifted from a village-centric social context to that of a large city and the anonymity that could result.

3.6.4.3.3. Smith is also concerned about class and wealth disparity and that impacts that would have on society.

3.7. 7. Kant 1724-1804

3.7.1. Place

3.7.2. History

3.7.3. Works

3.7.4. Theory

3.7.4.1. The Critique of Pure Reason

3.7.4.1.1. Science is the study of the world as perceived by our senses

3.7.4.1.2. To experience that world, we impose upon it forms and categories that make our experience of the world possible and coherent.

3.7.4.1.3. Metaphysics goes beyond our experience, and thus outside of pure reason

3.7.4.1.4. Disagreed with Locke and Hume and their empericism - the idea that all ideas and truths come from experience

3.7.4.1.5. Without his 'categories of understanding' none of our experiences would make any sense.

3.7.4.2. The Critique of Practical Reason

3.7.4.2.1. Maxim: Act only that that maxim by which you can at the same time will that it become a universal law.

3.7.4.2.2. Practical Reason is concerned with how we ought to live.

3.7.4.2.3. A moral law cannot consist primarily of hypothetical imperatives

3.7.4.2.4. Hypothetical imperatives fail because they only apply to those who want the outcome they describe.

3.7.4.2.5. Categorical Imperatives have no qualification clause

3.7.4.2.6. The notion of Free Will is justified by our ability to self-legislate - to create rules that we should follow, and then to follow them.

3.8. 8. Burke 1729-1797

3.8.1. Place

3.8.2. History

3.8.2.1. Strongly supported of the American Revolution

3.8.2.1.1. Because it did not proposal a social upheaval or overturn, only a political one.

3.8.2.1.2. He believed that is used as its basis the notion of traditional rights - no taxation without representation - derived from English common law.

3.8.2.2. Strongly condemned the French Revolution

3.8.3. Works

3.8.4. Theory

3.8.4.1. Believed that individual rights were not derived from abstract principles but were instead based on traditions and conventions of the population.

3.8.4.2. These are 'conventional' rights that could not be derived from theory.

3.9. 9. Jacobi 1743-1819

3.9.1. Place

3.9.2. History

3.9.3. Works

3.9.4. Theory

3.10. 10. Herder 1744-1803

3.10.1. Place

3.10.2. History

3.10.3. Works

3.10.4. Theory

4. 10. Modern II 1760-1915

4.1. 1. Fichte 1762-1814

4.1.1. Place

4.1.2. History

4.1.3. Works

4.1.4. Theory

4.2. 2. Schleiermacher 1768-1834

4.2.1. Place

4.2.2. History

4.2.3. Works

4.2.4. Theory

4.3. 3. Hegel 1770-1831

4.3.1. Place

4.3.2. History

4.3.2.1. Founder of Modern Historicism

4.3.3. Works

4.3.4. Theory

4.3.4.1. Opposed the Enlightenment concepts of materialism and that the unfolding of history was purely mechanical.

4.4. 4. Schelling 1775-1854

4.4.1. Place

4.4.2. History

4.4.3. Works

4.4.4. Theory

4.5. 5. Schopenhauer 1788-1860

4.5.1. Place

4.5.2. History

4.5.3. Works

4.5.4. Theory

4.6. 6. Newman 1801-1890

4.6.1. Place

4.6.2. History

4.6.3. Works

4.6.4. Theory

4.7. 7. Feuerbach 1804-1872

4.7.1. Place

4.7.2. History

4.7.3. Works

4.7.4. Theory

4.8. 8. Stuart Mill 1806-1873

4.8.1. Place

4.8.2. History

4.8.3. Works

4.8.3.1. Wrote "On Liberty" - classical defense of freedom from intrusive government AND from majority rule.

4.8.4. Theory

4.8.4.1. Main defender of Utilitarianism

4.8.4.1.1. The idea that one ought do what brings about the most benefits and causes the least amount of harm.

4.8.4.1.2. The greatest good for the greatest number.

4.9. 9. Darwin 1809-1882

4.9.1. Place

4.9.2. History

4.9.3. Works

4.9.4. Theory

4.10. 10. Kierkegaard 1813-1855

4.10.1. Place

4.10.2. History

4.10.2.1. Founding figure of Existentialism

4.10.3. Works

4.10.4. Theory

4.10.4.1. Felt that true Christian faith required one to make a "Leap of Faith"

4.10.4.2. Was concerned with Reason usurping the role and need for Faith.

4.10.4.3. Felt that Abraham's willingness to sacrifice his only son Isaac when requested by God was a great "Leap of Faith"

4.10.4.3.1. Abraham's faith was justified when he raised up the knife to sacrifice his own son only to have his hand staid by God.

4.10.4.3.2. This is true belief, true faith.

4.10.4.4. Three States to Human Life

4.10.4.4.1. Aesthetic - the pursuit of immediate pleasures.

4.10.4.4.2. Ethical - Through repentance and marriage.

4.10.4.4.3. Religious - Faith in the incarnation of God in Christ.

4.11. 11. Marx 1818-1883

4.11.1. Place

4.11.2. History

4.11.3. Works

4.11.4. Theory

4.11.4.1. Historical materialism

4.11.4.2. Division of Labor

4.11.4.3. There will always be a scarcity of the goods needed to satisfy the cultural wants of all of society.

4.11.4.3.1. A consequence of this is that one part of society establishes itself as a ruling class in order to secure a dispropotionate share. This is inevitable as human nature

4.11.4.4. Modes of Production

4.11.4.4.1. Communism is the answer to the problems inherit in the Capitalist Mode of Production.

4.11.4.4.2. It addresses the problem of disparate incomes.

4.11.4.4.3. It addresses the problem of scarcity on a global basis.

4.11.4.5. Felt that the downfall of Capitalism was inevitable. And that Communism was its logical successor.

4.11.4.6. Felt that Capitalism would lead to alienation.

4.11.4.6.1. Capitalism and Private Property would alienate man from other men and from himself.

4.11.4.7. Capitalism leads to exploitation and inequality, especially for women.

4.12. 12. Engels 1820-1895

4.12.1. Place

4.12.2. History

4.12.3. Works

4.12.4. Theory

4.13. 13. Herbert Spencer 1820-1903

4.13.1. Place

4.13.2. History

4.13.3. Works

4.13.4. Theory

4.14. 14. Dilthey 1833-1911

4.14.1. Place

4.14.2. History

4.14.3. Works

4.14.4. Theory

4.15. 15. C.S. Pierce 1839-1914

4.15.1. Place

4.15.2. History

4.15.3. Works

4.15.4. Theory

4.16. 16. William James 1842-1910

4.16.1. Place

4.16.2. History

4.16.3. Works

4.16.4. Theory

4.17. 17. Nietzsche 1844-1900

4.17.1. Place

4.17.2. History

4.17.3. Works

4.17.4. Theory

4.17.4.1. Perspectivism

4.17.4.1.1. Strongly rejected the Aristotelean notion of an objective real world.

4.17.4.1.2. There is no true metaphysics.

4.17.4.1.3. The world of appearances if the only world that we have access to.

4.17.4.1.4. We have no access to knowledge about an objective world. We have only our perceptions, conceptions and interpretations.

4.17.4.1.5. There is no 'Gods Eye View' of the real world.

4.17.4.1.6. His epistemology was practical, pragmatic.

4.17.4.2. The Will to Power

4.17.4.2.1. Morality is an expression of The Will to Power

4.17.4.2.2. Stressed master and slave morality, strength over weakness.

4.17.4.3. Morality is Subjective

4.17.4.3.1. Values are relative to the time, place, circumstances and customs.

4.17.4.4. "Become who you are!"

4.17.4.4.1. Ethics becomes an aesthetic pursuit of becoming a beautiful person - Give Style to your Character.

4.17.4.4.2. We should not contradict our character, but instead cultivate our strengths and virtues.

4.17.4.4.3. "Thus Spake Zarathustra"

4.17.4.4.4. We should not follow the herd

5. 11. Post Modern 1840-1990

5.1. 1. Bradley 1846-1924

5.1.1. Place

5.1.2. History

5.1.3. Works

5.1.4. Theory

5.2. 2. Bosanquet 1848-1923

5.2.1. Place

5.2.2. History

5.2.3. Works

5.2.4. Theory

5.3. 3. Royce 1855-1916

5.3.1. Place

5.3.2. History

5.3.3. Works

5.3.4. Theory

5.4. 4. Freud 1856-1939

5.4.1. Place

5.4.2. History

5.4.3. Works

5.4.4. Theory

5.4.4.1. Id

5.4.4.1.1. Represents the Self

5.4.4.1.2. More powerful than ego, superego

5.4.4.1.3. Seeks to gain pleasure, avoid pain

5.4.4.1.4. Knows no moral judgements

5.4.4.1.5. Produces frustration by making demands that cannot be fulfilled.

5.4.4.2. Ego

5.4.4.2.1. Represents Reality

5.4.4.2.2. Rational, cautious

5.4.4.2.3. Weakest element of our personality

5.4.4.2.4. Attempts to negotiate between Id and Superego

5.4.4.2.5. Source of anxiety

5.4.4.3. Superego

5.4.4.3.1. Represents Morality

5.4.4.3.2. Imposes standards of moral perfection that cannot be sustained.

5.4.4.3.3. It produces guilt.

5.4.4.4. Conflict among these three factions leads to unhappiness.

5.4.4.5. "Civilization and Its Discontents"

5.5. 5. Husserl 1859-1938

5.5.1. Place

5.5.2. History

5.5.3. Works

5.5.4. Theory

5.5.4.1. Criticized the relativism of Nietzsche, who believed that absolute truth cannot exist apart from our perspectives of it.

5.5.4.2. Rejected skepticism for stating that even if there were absolute truths, we would have no way to know them.

5.5.4.3. Rejected historicism for insisting that all truth is relative to the historical context in which it originates.

5.5.4.4. Rejected positivism for insisting that only truths that are based on empirical phenomena are possible - partly because it leaves to room for mathematical axioms/truths which are not empirical.

5.5.4.5. Husserl believed that philosophy should seek certainty, not facts.

5.6. 6. John Dewey 1859-1952

5.6.1. Place

5.6.2. History

5.6.3. Works

5.6.4. Theory

5.7. 7. Whitehead 1861-1947

5.7.1. Place

5.7.2. History

5.7.3. Works

5.7.4. Theory

5.8. 8. Max Weber 1864-1920

5.8.1. Place

5.8.2. History

5.8.2.1. Founder of modern sociology

5.8.3. Works

5.8.4. Theory

5.8.4.1. Focused on how authority is legitimated in societies.

5.8.4.2. Legitimacy has three forms

5.8.4.2.1. Legal

5.8.4.2.2. Traditional

5.8.4.2.3. Charismatic

5.9. 9. F. S. Schiller 1864-1937

5.9.1. Place

5.9.2. History

5.9.3. Works

5.9.4. Theory

5.10. 10. Bertrand Russel 1872-1970

5.10.1. Place

5.10.2. History

5.10.3. Works

5.10.4. Theory

5.11. 11. G.E. Moore 1873-1958

5.11.1. Place

5.11.2. History

5.11.3. Works

5.11.4. Theory

5.12. 12. Wittgenstein 1889-1951

5.12.1. Place

5.12.2. History

5.12.3. Works

5.12.4. Theory

5.13. 13. Heidegger 1889-1976

5.13.1. Place

5.13.2. History

5.13.3. Works

5.13.4. Theory

6. 12. Contemporary 1890-2010

6.1. 1. Rudolf Carnap 1891-1970

6.1.1. Place

6.1.2. History

6.1.2.1. Member of the Vienna Circle

6.1.2.2. Supporter of Logical Positivism

6.1.3. Works

6.1.4. Theory

6.1.4.1. Developed a formal version of empericism

6.2. 2. Hayek 1899-1992

6.2.1. Place

6.2.2. History

6.2.3. Works

6.2.3.1. Road to Serfdom

6.2.3.1.1. People have incompatible preferences which central planning cannot possibly account for.

6.2.3.1.2. Planned economies lead to concentrations of power.

6.2.3.1.3. Therefore, central planning inevitably leads to a loss of freedom.

6.2.4. Theory

6.2.4.1. Socialism and central planning is incompatible with individual freedom

6.2.4.2. Argued that there is a social division/dispersion of knowledge that leads to an efficient determination of prices.

6.2.4.3. Prices do not necessarily represent merit.

6.2.4.4. Therefore, rewards and social justice will not always be dispersed according to merit.

6.3. 3. Popper 1902-1994

6.3.1. Place

6.3.2. History

6.3.3. Works

6.3.4. Theory

6.3.4.1. Was strongly influenced by how Einstein challenged the thoroughly confirmed and widely held confidence in Newton.

6.3.4.2. Argued that science can strive for truth, but will never be 100% sure if/when it has achieved it.

6.3.4.3. Our best form of knowledge is science, but that cannot be taken as justified truth.

6.3.4.4. Insisted on the testability of scientific ideas.

6.3.4.5. The objectivity of any scientific idea could only be established through critique.

6.4. 4. Jean Paul Sartre 1905-1980

6.4.1. Place

6.4.2. History

6.4.3. Works

6.4.4. Theory

6.4.4.1. Existentialism

6.4.4.2. There is no creator

6.4.4.3. We are condemned to be free

6.4.4.4. Existence precedes essence

6.4.4.5. Authenticity and individuality are earned, not learned

6.5. 5. Kurt Gödel 1906-1978

6.5.1. Place

6.5.2. History

6.5.3. Works

6.5.3.1. Incompleteness theorems

6.5.4. Theory

6.5.4.1. For any computable axiomatic system

6.5.4.1.1. If the system is consistent, it cannot be complete

6.5.4.1.2. The consistency of the axiums cannot be proven by the system itself

6.6. 6. Qine 1908-2000

6.6.1. Place

6.6.2. History

6.6.3. Works

6.6.4. Theory

6.6.4.1. Effective critic of logical positivism

6.6.4.2. Attacked Empiricism

6.6.4.2.1. There is no real distinction between synthetic truths and analytic truths.

6.6.4.2.2. The principle of reductionism - that every high level statement could ultimately be reduced to simpler statements of sense experience - does not work.

6.6.4.2.3. This is because our ability to reason about sensory experience is constrained by the symbol language we use to reason about it. These language impose their own boundary conditions to what can be reasoned.

6.7. 7. A.J. Ayer 1910-1989

6.7.1. Place

6.7.2. History

6.7.3. Works

6.7.4. Theory

6.7.4.1. Philosophy should abandon the pursuit of an absolute metaphysics.

6.7.4.2. All talk about the world was a "logical construct" of our phenomenal and sensual experience.

6.7.4.3. Considered philosophy the handmaiden of science - to help explain scientific meaning.

6.7.4.4. Positivism was partly a response against the complete relativism of Kant. Positive = Pro-science

6.7.4.5. Positivism was also built on the progress in symbolic logic and related mathematics.

6.7.4.6. Language does not have a deterministic meaning or external provable correspondence.

6.7.4.7. Believed that statements of ethical judgements were meaningless.

6.8. 8. Albert Camus 1913-1960

6.8.1. Place

6.8.2. History

6.8.3. Works

6.8.4. Theory

6.8.4.1. Absurdism

6.8.4.2. We value our lives and existence

6.8.4.3. But our mortality makes our lives meaningless

6.8.4.4. To embrace that paradox is absurdism

6.9. 9. Gouldner 1920-1980

6.9.1. Place

6.9.2. History

6.9.3. Works

6.9.4. Theory

6.9.4.1. Critic of the Marxist attempt to define society in terms of who owns the means of physical production, and the class distinctions that such a model result in.

6.9.4.2. The succession of modern ideologies owes its existence to the American and French revolutions, which made it possible to be an intellectual dissident.

6.9.4.3. Each ideology seeks to destroy competing ideologies while itself claiming to be disinterested.

6.9.4.4. Class struggle in the modern west occur between old money and new intelligentsia (engineers, doctors, lawyers, scientists)

6.9.4.4.1. The struggle is not, as Marx described it, between those who controlled the means of production and the serfs below them.

6.10. 10. Rawls 1921-2002

6.10.1. Place

6.10.2. History

6.10.3. Works

6.10.3.1. A Theory of Justice

6.10.3.1.1. The task of any theory of social justice is the legitimate the inequalities that emerge in the basic structure of society.

6.10.3.1.2. To assess any system, you must do so from the 'original position'

6.10.3.1.3. Each person is to have an equal right to the most extensive basic liberty that is compatible with a similar liberty held by all others.

6.10.3.1.4. If there are any inequalities in the system, they can only be justified if first - they are to everyone's advantage - and second - they be attached to positions or offices that are open to all.

6.10.4. Theory

6.11. 11. Kuhn 1922-1996

6.11.1. Place

6.11.2. History

6.11.3. Works

6.11.4. Theory

6.11.4.1. The Structure of Scientific Revolutions

6.11.4.2. Paradigm Shift

6.11.4.3. Most scientific work is spent filling out the details of the prevailing paradigm, not in divergent or critical investigation.

6.11.4.4. Over time anomalies accumulate in the prevailing paradigm, eventually building into a 'paradigm shift'

6.11.4.4.1. Aristotle (earth is center of universe)

6.11.4.4.2. Copernicus (sun is center of universe)

6.11.4.4.3. Newton

6.11.4.4.4. Einstein

6.11.4.4.5. ???

6.11.4.5. A field of study is NOT a science until it has a single, unifying paradigm within which most of its practitioners work.

6.11.4.6. Kuhn characterized progress in science as a highly social, and not necessarily rational, mechanism.

6.12. 12. Derrida 1930-2004

6.12.1. Place

6.12.2. History

6.12.3. Works

6.12.4. Theory

6.12.4.1. Deconstructionist

6.12.4.2. Questioned the entire western tradition of trying to define a 'true logos' behind our empirical view of the world.

6.12.4.2.1. This began with Plato's forms, and has been carried forward ever since.

6.12.4.3. Follower of Nietzsche, Freud and Heidegger

6.12.4.3.1. Nietzsche did away with the concept of absolute truth.

6.12.4.3.2. Freud did away with the concept that the subjective self or consciousness has any special access to the 'logos' or true forms.

6.12.4.3.3. Heidegger did away with the notion of an 'I am' that precedes existence.

6.12.4.3.4. He argued (from Sartre) that you must exist in order to have an essence. There is no essence without existence.

6.12.4.4. Deconstructionism directly opposes the Christian belief that Jesus/God embodies the perfect 'form' of man.

6.12.4.5. Like Sartre (existentialism) - the absence of a higher plan or purpose to life does NOT render life meaningless.

6.12.4.6. He wants to free us from the guilt over the absence of absolute meaning or purpose in life. There can be none, so get over it.

6.13. 13. Rorty 1931-2007

6.13.1. Place

6.13.2. History

6.13.3. Works

6.13.4. Theory

6.13.4.1. Absolute truth cannot be found in language - it is merely a statement that we approve of.

6.13.4.2. Modern philosophers should give up the pursuit of absolute truth, and instead should seek to eliminate the cruelties of everyday life that these historical social norms have placed upon us.

6.13.4.3. His basic critique of western philosophy centers on the refutation of the existence of a "God's eye-view" of the world

6.13.4.4. Pragmatism is the ultimate anti-philosophy

6.13.4.4.1. Rejects the goal of defining truth as the level of correspondence with an objective reality.

6.13.4.4.2. Truth should be approached pragmatically: Does the statement work for us?

6.13.4.4.3. Also rejects absolute realism. Our experience of reality will always be influenced by the conceptual framework in which we analyze it. And that framework is constantly changing.

6.13.4.5. Argues that many aspects of our language and are beliefs are contingent - not necessarily true or false.

6.13.4.6. But it is important for our overall system of beliefs to 'hand together' and to be free of inconsistencies.

6.14. 14. Nozick 1938-2002

6.14.1. Place

6.14.2. History

6.14.3. Works

6.14.4. Theory

6.14.4.1. Limited Governement

6.14.4.1.1. Wrote "Anarchy, State, and Utopia"

6.14.4.1.2. Starts with the basic principle that a lone individual has certain rights that no other person may infringe upon.

6.14.4.1.3. Then asks the question: With that as the basis, is there a form of government that can adhere to that principle? If so, what would it look like?

6.14.4.1.4. The starting point is an individual who has the right to personal property. That is the state of nature.

6.14.4.1.5. He then argues that only a very limited state may exist that would not infringe upon that fundamental right.

6.14.4.1.6. Nozick argues that a minimalist government is possible that does not infringe upon this basic right, and that it can be achieved without gaining the consent or participation of ALL individuals (which would necessarily entail some amount of coercion).

6.14.4.2. Redistribution of Wealth

6.14.4.2.1. Taxes mean that others have a claim of ownership in you, and are therefore morally equivalent to forced labor and slavery.

6.14.4.2.2. However, charitable redistribution is fine - only forced redistribution is wrong.

6.14.4.3. How do we assess a just society

6.14.4.3.1. The means: The individual steps that led to the current distribution of wealth were each fair, just and entered into freely by both participants.

6.14.4.3.2. The ends: The resulting distribution of wealth is equal among all participants, regardless of whether coercion was used to move some wealth from one to another.

6.15. 15. W.W. Bartley 1934-1990

6.15.1. Place

6.15.2. History

6.15.2.1. Close collaborator with Karl Popper

6.15.3. Works

6.15.4. Theory

6.15.4.1. Best known for pancritical rationalism

6.15.4.1.1. Every possible option or explanation will have one valid criticism.

6.15.4.1.2. The goal is to choose the option whose criticism you are most willing to accept.

6.15.4.2. Discussion of pancritical rationalism

7. 6. Late Medieval 1175-1350

7.1. 1. Anselm of Canterbury 1033-1109

7.2. 2. Robert Grosseteste 1175-1253

7.2.1. Place

7.2.2. History

7.2.3. Works

7.2.4. Theory

7.3. 3. William of Auvergne 1180-1249

7.3.1. Place

7.3.2. History

7.3.3. Works

7.3.4. Theory

7.4. 4. Alexander of Hales 1181-1245

7.4.1. Place

7.4.2. History

7.4.3. Works

7.4.4. Theory

7.5. 5. Albert the Great 1193-1280

7.5.1. Place

7.5.2. History

7.5.3. Works

7.5.4. Theory

7.6. 6. Roger Bacon 1214-1294

7.6.1. Place

7.6.2. History

7.6.3. Works

7.6.4. Theory

7.7. 7. Henry of Ghent 1217-1293

7.7.1. Place

7.7.2. History

7.7.3. Works

7.7.4. Theory

7.8. 8. Bonaventure 1221-1274

7.8.1. Place

7.8.2. History

7.8.3. Works

7.8.4. Theory

7.9. 9. Thomas Aquinus 1225-1274

7.9.1. Place

7.9.2. History

7.9.3. Works

7.9.3.1. Summa Theologica

7.9.4. Theory

7.9.4.1. Argues that the eternity of the world cannot be demonstrated by pure logic.

7.9.4.2. Aristotelian

7.9.4.3. Truth could be achieved through natural or divine reason

7.9.4.4. Four Cardinal Virtues

7.9.4.4.1. Prudence

7.9.4.4.2. Temperance

7.9.4.4.3. Justice

7.9.4.4.4. Fortitude

7.9.4.5. Five Ways on the Nature of God

7.9.4.5.1. God is simple, without composition of parts

7.9.4.5.2. God is perfect, lacking nothing

7.9.4.5.3. God is infinite

7.9.4.5.4. God is immutable

7.9.4.5.5. God is one

7.10. 10. Siger of Brabant 1240-1280

7.10.1. Place

7.10.2. History

7.10.3. Works

7.10.4. Theory

7.11. 11. Giles of Rome 1243-1316

7.11.1. Place

7.11.2. History

7.11.3. Works

7.11.4. Theory

7.12. 12. John Duns Scotus 1266-1308

7.12.1. Place

7.12.2. History

7.12.3. Works

7.12.4. Theory

7.13. 13. Marsilius of Padua 1275-1342

7.13.1. Place

7.13.2. History

7.13.3. Works

7.13.4. Theory

7.14. 14. William of Occam 1287-1347

7.14.1. Place

7.14.2. History

7.14.3. Works

7.14.4. Theory

8. 5. Early Medieval 815-1207

8.1. 1. John Scotus 815-877

8.1.1. Place

8.1.2. History

8.1.3. Works

8.1.4. Theory

8.2. 2. Alfarabi 872-950

8.2.1. Place

8.2.2. History

8.2.3. Works

8.2.4. Theory

8.3. 3. Avicenna 980-1037

8.3.1. Place

8.3.2. History

8.3.3. Works

8.3.4. Theory

8.4. 4. Avicebron 1021-1058

8.4.1. Place

8.4.2. History

8.4.3. Works

8.4.4. Theory

8.5. 5. Anselm 1033-1109

8.5.1. Place

8.5.2. History

8.5.3. Works

8.5.4. Theory

8.6. 6. Roscelin 1050-1125

8.6.1. Place

8.6.2. History

8.6.3. Works

8.6.4. Theory

8.7. 7. William of champeaux 1070-1121

8.7.1. Place

8.7.2. History

8.7.3. Works

8.7.4. Theory

8.8. 8. Abelard 1079-1142

8.8.1. Place

8.8.2. History

8.8.3. Works

8.8.4. Theory

8.9. 9. Hugh of St. Victor 1096-1141

8.9.1. Place

8.9.2. History

8.9.3. Works

8.9.4. Theory

8.10. 10. Peter Lombard 1096-1164

8.10.1. Place

8.10.2. History

8.10.3. Works

8.10.4. Theory

8.11. 11. Richard of St. Victor 1110-1173

8.11.1. Place

8.11.2. History

8.11.3. Works

8.11.4. Theory

8.12. 12. John of Salisbury 1120-1180

8.12.1. Place

8.12.2. History

8.12.3. Works

8.12.4. Theory

8.13. 13. Averroes 1126-1198

8.13.1. Place

8.13.2. History

8.13.3. Works

8.13.4. Theory

8.14. 14. Moses Maimonides 1138-1204

8.14.1. Place

8.14.2. History

8.14.3. Works

8.14.4. Theory

8.15. 15. Amalric of Bene 1140-1207

8.15.1. Place

8.15.2. History

8.15.3. Works

8.15.4. Theory

9. 4. Christian 100-525

9.1. 1. Justin 100-165

9.1.1. Place

9.1.2. History

9.1.3. Works

9.1.4. Theory

9.2. 2. Clement of Alexandria 150-215

9.2.1. Place

9.2.2. History

9.2.3. Works

9.2.4. Theory

9.3. 3. Tertullian 160-225

9.3.1. Place

9.3.2. History

9.3.3. Works

9.3.4. Theory

9.4. 4. Origen 184-253

9.4.1. Place

9.4.2. History

9.4.3. Works

9.4.4. Theory

9.5. 5. Ambrose 340-397

9.5.1. Place

9.5.2. History

9.5.3. Works

9.5.4. Theory

9.6. 6. Gregory of Nyssa 335-395

9.6.1. Place

9.6.2. History

9.6.3. Works

9.6.4. Theory

9.7. 7. Augustine 354-430

9.7.1. Place

9.7.2. History

9.7.3. Works

9.7.3.1. Confessions

9.7.4. Theory

9.7.4.1. Combined christian with platonic

9.7.4.2. The Grace of God

9.7.4.3. Is grace a gift of god, or must it be earned?

9.7.4.4. Predestination - God knows from the start who will receive The Grace

9.8. 8. Pseudo Dionysius 460-540

9.8.1. Place

9.8.2. History

9.8.3. Works

9.8.4. Theory

9.9. 9. Boethius 480-524

9.9.1. Place

9.9.2. History

9.9.3. Works

9.9.4. Theory

10. 3. Roman 185 BC-485 AD

10.1. 1. Panaetius 185-110 BC

10.1.1. Place

10.1.2. History

10.1.3. Works

10.1.4. Theory

10.2. 2. Posidonius 135-51 BC

10.2.1. Place

10.2.2. History

10.2.3. Works

10.2.4. Theory

10.3. 3. Cicero 106-43 BC

10.3.1. Place

10.3.2. History

10.3.2.1. Brought Greek philosophy to the Romans

10.3.3. Works

10.3.4. Theory

10.3.4.1. Combined Skeptics, Epicureanism

10.3.4.2. Virtue is happiness from Aristotle

10.3.4.3. Epicurean principle of refined and disciplined pleasure

10.4. 4. Philo of Alexandria 20 BC-50 AD

10.4.1. Place

10.4.2. History

10.4.3. Works

10.4.4. Theory

10.5. 5. Seneca 4 BC-65 AD

10.5.1. Place

10.5.2. History

10.5.3. Works

10.5.4. Theory

10.6. 6. Plutarch 46-120

10.6.1. Place

10.6.2. History

10.6.3. Works

10.6.4. Theory

10.7. 7. Epictetus 55-135

10.7.1. Place

10.7.2. History

10.7.3. Works

10.7.4. Theory

10.8. 8. Sextus Empiricus 160-210

10.8.1. Place

10.8.2. History

10.8.3. Works

10.8.4. Theory

10.9. 9. Plotinus 205-270

10.9.1. Place

10.9.2. History

10.9.3. Works

10.9.4. Theory

10.10. 10. Porphyry 234-305

10.10.1. Place

10.10.2. History

10.10.3. Works

10.10.4. Theory

10.11. 11. Iamblichus 245-325

10.11.1. Place

10.11.2. History

10.11.3. Works

10.11.4. Theory

10.12. 12. Proclus 412-485

10.12.1. Place

10.12.2. History

10.12.3. Works

10.12.4. Theory

11. 2. Classical Greek 470-205 BC

11.1. 1. Socrates 469-399 BC

11.1.1. Place

11.1.2. History

11.1.3. Works

11.1.4. Theory

11.1.4.1. Ethical truth was absolute

11.1.4.2. "To Know the Good is to Do the Good"

11.2. 2. Prodicus 465-395 BC

11.2.1. Place

11.2.2. History

11.2.3. Works

11.2.4. Theory

11.3. 3. Hippias 460-399 BC

11.3.1. Place

11.3.2. History

11.3.3. Works

11.3.4. Theory

11.4. 4. Thucydides 460-395 BC

11.4.1. Place

11.4.2. History

11.4.2.1. The Pelopomnesian War - his greatest contribution to history.

11.4.2.2. "The Father of Scientific History"

11.4.2.3. "The Father of the school of political realism"

11.4.3. Works

11.4.4. Theory

11.5. 5. Antisthenes 445-365 BC

11.5.1. Place

11.5.2. History

11.5.3. Works

11.5.4. Theory

11.6. 6. Euclid of Megara 435-365 BC

11.6.1. Place

11.6.2. History

11.6.3. Works

11.6.4. Theory

11.7. 7. Aristippus 435-356 BC

11.7.1. Place

11.7.2. History

11.7.3. Works

11.7.4. Theory

11.8. 8. Plato 423-347 BC

11.8.1. Place

11.8.2. History

11.8.2.1. Invented Metaphysics

11.8.2.2. The Socratic Method

11.8.2.3. Invented Dualism of Mind and Body

11.8.2.4. Forms

11.8.3. Works

11.8.4. Theory

11.8.4.1. Republic

11.8.4.1.1. Shadows on the Cave Wall

11.8.4.1.2. Women should hold political power

11.8.4.1.3. Political leaders chosen from among best & brightest

11.8.4.1.4. Anti-democratic

11.8.4.1.5. What is Justice?

11.8.4.1.6. No nuclear family

11.8.4.1.7. No private property

11.8.4.1.8. Philosopher "guardians" of Reason will rule

11.8.4.2. Asked the question "What is virtue?"

11.9. 9. Diogenes 412-323 BC

11.9.1. Place

11.9.2. History

11.9.3. Works

11.9.4. Theory

11.10. 10. Aristotle 384-322 BC

11.10.1. Place

11.10.2. History

11.10.2.1. Invented term "physics"

11.10.2.1.1. Greek for "Nature"

11.10.3. Works

11.10.4. Theory

11.10.4.1. Criticism of The Republic/Plato

11.10.4.1.1. Family is rooted in human nature

11.10.4.1.2. Idea of private property is 'natural'

11.10.4.1.3. Rejected concentration of power

11.10.4.1.4. Supported rule by middle class

11.10.4.2. Epistomology

11.10.4.2.1. We acquire our knowledge of the world via our senses

11.10.4.3. Ethics

11.10.4.3.1. Defined ethics as "What is the good goal of human life?"

11.10.4.3.2. Happiness is the life lived by the virtuous person

11.10.4.3.3. Four Primary Virtues

11.10.4.3.4. Happiness is the goal of human life

11.10.4.3.5. Happiness means good at being human

11.11. 11. Pyrrho 360-270 BC

11.11.1. Place

11.11.2. History

11.11.3. Works

11.11.4. Theory

11.12. 12. Epicurus 341-270 BC

11.12.1. Place

11.12.2. History

11.12.3. Works

11.12.4. Theory

11.13. 13. Zeno of Citium 334-262 BC

11.13.1. Place

11.13.2. History

11.13.2.1. Considered founder of Stoicism

11.13.3. Works

11.13.4. Theory

11.13.4.1. "Happiness is a good flow of life"

11.13.4.2. Pathos is a disturbance of the mind repugnant to Reason and against Nature.

11.13.4.3. Virtua is the consistency of the soul with Right Reason and Universal Reason (logic)

11.14. 14. Cleanthes 330-230 BC

11.14.1. Place

11.14.2. History

11.14.3. Works

11.14.4. Theory

11.15. 15. Chrysippus 279-206 BC

11.15.1. Place

11.15.2. History

11.15.3. Works

11.15.4. Theory

11.16. 16. Carneades 214-129 BC

11.16.1. Place

11.16.2. History

11.16.3. Works

11.16.4. Theory

12. 1. Pre-Socratic 625-370 BC

12.1. 1. Thales 624-546 BC

12.1.1. Place

12.1.2. History

12.1.3. Works

12.1.4. Theory

12.2. 2. Anaximander 610-546 BC

12.2.1. Place

12.2.2. History

12.2.3. Works

12.2.4. Theory

12.3. 3. Anaximenes 585-525 BC

12.3.1. Place

12.3.2. History

12.3.3. Works

12.3.4. Theory

12.4. 4. Xenophanes 570-475 BC

12.4.1. Place

12.4.2. History

12.4.3. Works

12.4.4. Theory

12.5. 5. Pythagoras 570-495 BC

12.5.1. Place

12.5.2. History

12.5.3. Works

12.5.4. Theory

12.5.4.1. Believed in reincarnation

12.5.4.2. Heavily influenced by mathematics and mysticism

12.5.4.3. Transmigration of the Soul was a core belief

12.5.4.4. Were vegetarians

12.6. 6. Parmenides 540-450 BC

12.6.1. Place

12.6.2. History

12.6.3. Works

12.6.4. Theory

12.6.4.1. Only known work was "On Nature" - a poem

12.6.4.2. Claimed that truth cannot be know through sensory perception, only through logos.

12.7. 7. Heraclitus 535-475 BC

12.7.1. Place

12.7.2. History

12.7.3. Works

12.7.4. Theory

12.7.4.1. "No man steps in the same river twice."

12.7.4.2. Diogenes primary biographer

12.8. 8. Anaxagoras 510-428 BC

12.8.1. Place

12.8.2. History

12.8.3. Works

12.8.4. Theory

12.9. 9. Protagoras 490-420 BC

12.9.1. Place

12.9.2. History

12.9.3. Works

12.9.4. Theory

12.9.4.1. Considered the first sophist

12.10. 10. Zeno of Elea 490-430 BC

12.10.1. Place

12.10.2. History

12.10.3. Works

12.10.4. Theory

12.10.4.1. Realist/Materialist

12.10.4.2. Reducto ad Absurdum

12.10.4.3. Best known for his Paradoxes

12.10.4.3.1. Arhilles and the Tortoise

12.11. 11. Empedocles 490-430 BC

12.11.1. Place

12.11.2. History

12.11.3. Works

12.11.4. Theory

12.12. 12. Gorgias 485-380 BC

12.12.1. Place

12.12.2. History

12.12.3. Works

12.12.4. Theory

12.13. 13. Herodotus 484-425 BC

12.13.1. Place

12.13.2. History

12.13.2.1. First known writer to collect and document his ideas systematically.

12.13.2.2. Greek Historian

12.13.3. Works

12.13.4. Theory

12.14. 14. Melissus 470-410 BC

12.14.1. Place

12.14.2. History

12.14.3. Works

12.14.4. Theory

12.15. 15. Leucippus 460-370 BC

12.15.1. Place

12.15.2. History

12.15.3. Works

12.15.4. Theory

12.16. 16. Democritus 460-370 BC

12.16.1. Place

12.16.2. History

12.16.3. Works

12.16.4. Theory