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Map of Western Philosophy by Mind Map: Map of Western Philosophy
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Map of Western Philosophy

7. Renaissance 1400-1630

1. Nicholas of Cusa 1401-1464

Place

History

Works

Theory

2. Erasumus 1466-1536

Place

History

Works

Theory, Opposed strong enthusiasms

3. Niccolo Machiavelli 1469-1527

Place

History, Inventor of Political Science

Works, The Prince, "It is better to be feared than to be loved, because love is fickle but fear is constant., Reputation for honesty, integrity is important, But not the practice of it.

Theory

4. Thomas More 1478-1535

Place

History

Works, Utopia, Mocked modern English society, All property is communal, Marriage is by love, not arranged, Elected parliament, Price elected for life, War for 3 Reasons, Defend Territory, Defend Ally Territory, Liberate oppressed people, Moral Theory focused on happiness

Theory

5. Giordano Bruno 1548-1600

Place

History

Works

Theory

6. Francis Suarez 1548-1617

Place

History

Works

Theory

7. Francis Bacon 1561-1626

Place

History

Works

Theory, Sought to separate religion from natural philosophy, Stressed Induction and Experimetnal Methods

8. Modern I 1580-1780

1. Hobbes 1588-1679

Place

History

Works, Leviathan

Theory, We are guided by passions, not reason, Passions, Desire for Power, Fear of Death, Government is a means of escaping struggle between power and fear, Governments derive their power from the subjects in exchange for peace and security, The Social Contract

2. Descartes 1596-1650

Place

History

Works

Theory, "Cogito ergo sum", The most basic of all ideas, the existence of which cannot be disputed, Two Proofs of God, A perfect being could only come from a perfect being., From necessity: a perfect being must have existence to be perfect., Dualist (Mind/Body Dualism)

3. Pascal 1623-1662

Place

History

Works

Theory

4. Spinoza 1632-1677

Place

History

Works

Theory, Freewill is a logical impossibility because all causes have precedents, Rejected dualism of Descartes

5. Locke 1632-1704

Place

History

Works

Theory, Politics, A man is free when he is subject only to political authority to which he has consented., Natural liberty is freedom from the arbitrary power of others, Beginning of modern democratic political theory., Denies need for authoritarian power, which leads to despotism and tyranny, Denies that fear is the primary motivator of men, Natural Rights, Life, Liberty, Property, Men are governed by laws from a legislature, Opposed monarchies, Modern social contract theory, An agreement among free and equal men to exit the state of nature and by forming a limited polity., Stressed that equality was legal equality, not equality of material possessions., Knowledge/Epistomology, Empericist, Ideas are acquired via experience, Two forms of experience, The external world, Reflection on the mind's own operations, There are no innate ideas, The mind is a Tabula Rasa, Ethics, Ethics are learned, not innate, Ethics are derived from experience, and thus relative to our experience of the world

6. Malebranche 1638-1715

Place

History

Works

Theory

7. Leibniz 1646-1716

Place

History, Early developer of formal/algebraic logic, Co-inventory of Infinitesimal Calculus

Works, Théodicée, Reason and faith are gifts from God, Sin and Suffering are the result of metaphysical imperfections, Although God has unlimited reason and willpower, humans do not which makes sin and suffering possible., Metaphyics - La Monadologie, An attempt to resolve the problem of mind/body dualism, Nothing arises from nothing, Everything that exists has a reason to exist, Everything which exists is better than anything non-existent

Theory, Asserted "The best of all possible worlds"

8. Berkeley 1685-1753

Place

History

Works

Theory, There is no existence independent of perception, To exist is to be perceived, Disagreed with Locke's argument that human knowledge depends on the existence of material objects independent of minds., Claimed that materialism was dogmatic superstition., All of our ideas are derived from our experiences

9. Hume 1711-1776

Place

History

Works

Theory, Epistemology, Ideas are copies of our sense impressions, Three relations among ideas, Resemblance, Spatio-temporal, Cause-effect, Reason alone cannot justify our belief in experience, Belief in our experiences as representing the external world accurately is based on our instinct or custom, and cannot be proven with reason., Morality, Scientific theory of morality, Moral judgment cannot be based on rational deliberation, because simpletons and infants are also capable of making more judgments., There is no evidence that indicates that the most intellectually capable members of our species are the most moral., Therefore, our sense of morality is based in part on our biology and in part by our social context., What makes a moral rule a universal more rule?, Primarily, its utility, All government and political institutions have their basis in utility to society., We have a natural appreciation for virtuous behavior, and are thus naturally moral at least in part., Religion, Basing religious belief on inference from experience has four flaws, It means that religion is probable at best, because all ideas are derived from experience, not reason., In all scientific inquiries, negative evidence counts more than positive evidence. So we would require positive evidence with zero negative evidence in order to justify our belief in god through experience., Effects do not prove a cause., In the end, Hume is dismissive of both religion in general and in the ability to base religious belief on experience.

9. Enlightenmnet 1640-1800

1. Bayle 1647-1706

Place

History

Works

Theory

2. Vico 1668-1744

Place

History

Works

Theory

3. Christian Wolff 1679-1754

Place

History

Works

Theory

4. Voltaire 1694-1778

Place

History

Works

Theory

5. Rousseau 1712-1778

Place

History

Works

Theory, Critiqued the progress of modern society, Moral decadence always accompanies cultural progress, American Indians in their simplistic life compare favorably to Europeans in their levels of happiness and virtue., Claimed that enlightenment beliefs led to eventual collapse of civilizations, Called for a return to nature, Social Contract, All power is given to the state, Your happiness is calculated as your share of the overall societal happiness

6. Adam Smith 1723-1790

Place

History

Works

Theory, The Wealth of Nations: The Division of Labor, Specialization of job function leads to massive gains in efficiency., Coordination and cooperation between specialists is done out of self-interest., We get what we need from others out of their self-interest, not their charity., The Theory of Moral Sentiment, Offers an explanation and basis for the cooperation and coordination that are required for the division of labor described in Wealth of Nations., Why?, We want the approval of others, The reactions of others to us and our behaviors is important to us., We generally seek to behave as if there were an impartial spectator observing our behaviors. Would they approve of them?, Our conscience is a product of these factors., Obeying the law, We do so because of the utility of doing so. In general, we derive benefit when we do so., Worries, He was aware of the dangers and problems that could arise from too much specialization of labor and the social isolation that could result., He worried about the moral impact on someone who shifted from a village-centric social context to that of a large city and the anonymity that could result., Smith is also concerned about class and wealth disparity and that impacts that would have on society.

7. Kant 1724-1804

Place

History

Works

Theory, The Critique of Pure Reason, Science is the study of the world as perceived by our senses, To experience that world, we impose upon it forms and categories that make our experience of the world possible and coherent., Space and Time, Object Persistence, Causality, Existence, Plurality, Unity, Metaphysics goes beyond our experience, and thus outside of pure reason, Disagreed with Locke and Hume and their empericism - the idea that all ideas and truths come from experience, Without his 'categories of understanding' none of our experiences would make any sense., The Critique of Practical Reason, Maxim: Act only that that maxim by which you can at the same time will that it become a universal law., Practical Reason is concerned with how we ought to live., A moral law cannot consist primarily of hypothetical imperatives, Ex: If you want to stay healthy, you should eat right and exercise., Ex: If you want to become a doctor, than you should study., Hypothetical imperatives fail because they only apply to those who want the outcome they describe., Categorical Imperatives have no qualification clause, Instead of saying "Do not lie if you want to be trusted" (hypothetical), instead it should be "Do not lie"., Categorical Imperatives must not depend on circumstance, desire or on the consequences of their actions, The notion of Free Will is justified by our ability to self-legislate - to create rules that we should follow, and then to follow them.

8. Burke 1729-1797

Place

History, Strongly supported of the American Revolution, Because it did not proposal a social upheaval or overturn, only a political one., He believed that is used as its basis the notion of traditional rights - no taxation without representation - derived from English common law., Strongly condemned the French Revolution

Works

Theory, Believed that individual rights were not derived from abstract principles but were instead based on traditions and conventions of the population., These are 'conventional' rights that could not be derived from theory.

9. Jacobi 1743-1819

Place

History

Works

Theory

10. Herder 1744-1803

Place

History

Works

Theory

10. Modern II 1760-1915

1. Fichte 1762-1814

Place

History

Works

Theory

2. Schleiermacher 1768-1834

Place

History

Works

Theory

3. Hegel 1770-1831

Place

History, Founder of Modern Historicism

Works

Theory, Opposed the Enlightenment concepts of materialism and that the unfolding of history was purely mechanical.

4. Schelling 1775-1854

Place

History

Works

Theory

5. Schopenhauer 1788-1860

Place

History

Works

Theory

6. Newman 1801-1890

Place

History

Works

Theory

7. Feuerbach 1804-1872

Place

History

Works

Theory

8. Stuart Mill 1806-1873

Place

History

Works, Wrote "On Liberty" - classical defense of freedom from intrusive government AND from majority rule.

Theory, Main defender of Utilitarianism, The idea that one ought do what brings about the most benefits and causes the least amount of harm., The greatest good for the greatest number.

9. Darwin 1809-1882

Place

History

Works

Theory

10. Kierkegaard 1813-1855

Place

History, Founding figure of Existentialism

Works

Theory, Felt that true Christian faith required one to make a "Leap of Faith", Was concerned with Reason usurping the role and need for Faith., Felt that Abraham's willingness to sacrifice his only son Isaac when requested by God was a great "Leap of Faith", Abraham's faith was justified when he raised up the knife to sacrifice his own son only to have his hand staid by God., This is true belief, true faith., Three States to Human Life, Aesthetic - the pursuit of immediate pleasures., Ethical - Through repentance and marriage., Religious - Faith in the incarnation of God in Christ.

11. Marx 1818-1883

Place

History

Works

Theory, Historical materialism, Division of Labor, There will always be a scarcity of the goods needed to satisfy the cultural wants of all of society., A consequence of this is that one part of society establishes itself as a ruling class in order to secure a dispropotionate share. This is inevitable as human nature, Modes of Production, Communism is the answer to the problems inherit in the Capitalist Mode of Production., It addresses the problem of disparate incomes., It addresses the problem of scarcity on a global basis., Felt that the downfall of Capitalism was inevitable. And that Communism was its logical successor., Felt that Capitalism would lead to alienation., Capitalism and Private Property would alienate man from other men and from himself., Capitalism leads to exploitation and inequality, especially for women.

12. Engels 1820-1895

Place

History

Works

Theory

13. Herbert Spencer 1820-1903

Place

History

Works

Theory

14. Dilthey 1833-1911

Place

History

Works

Theory

15. C.S. Pierce 1839-1914

Place

History

Works

Theory

16. William James 1842-1910

Place

History

Works

Theory

17. Nietzsche 1844-1900

Place

History

Works

Theory, Perspectivism, Strongly rejected the Aristotelean notion of an objective real world., There is no true metaphysics., The world of appearances if the only world that we have access to., We have no access to knowledge about an objective world. We have only our perceptions, conceptions and interpretations., There is no 'Gods Eye View' of the real world., This led to his proclomaition that 'God is Dead', His epistemology was practical, pragmatic., The Will to Power, Morality is an expression of The Will to Power, Stressed master and slave morality, strength over weakness., Morality is Subjective, Values are relative to the time, place, circumstances and customs., "Become who you are!", Ethics becomes an aesthetic pursuit of becoming a beautiful person - Give Style to your Character., We should not contradict our character, but instead cultivate our strengths and virtues., "Thus Spake Zarathustra", We should not follow the herd

11. Post Modern 1840-1990

1. Bradley 1846-1924

Place

History

Works

Theory

2. Bosanquet 1848-1923

Place

History

Works

Theory

3. Royce 1855-1916

Place

History

Works

Theory

4. Freud 1856-1939

Place

History

Works

Theory, Id, Represents the Self, More powerful than ego, superego, Seeks to gain pleasure, avoid pain, Knows no moral judgements, Produces frustration by making demands that cannot be fulfilled., Ego, Represents Reality, Rational, cautious, Weakest element of our personality, Attempts to negotiate between Id and Superego, Source of anxiety, Superego, Represents Morality, Imposes standards of moral perfection that cannot be sustained., It produces guilt., Conflict among these three factions leads to unhappiness., "Civilization and Its Discontents"

5. Husserl 1859-1938

Place

History

Works

Theory, Criticized the relativism of Nietzsche, who believed that absolute truth cannot exist apart from our perspectives of it., Rejected skepticism for stating that even if there were absolute truths, we would have no way to know them., Rejected historicism for insisting that all truth is relative to the historical context in which it originates., Rejected positivism for insisting that only truths that are based on empirical phenomena are possible - partly because it leaves to room for mathematical axioms/truths which are not empirical., Husserl believed that philosophy should seek certainty, not facts.

6. John Dewey 1859-1952

Place

History

Works

Theory

7. Whitehead 1861-1947

Place

History

Works

Theory

8. Max Weber 1864-1920

Place

History, Founder of modern sociology

Works

Theory, Focused on how authority is legitimated in societies., Legitimacy has three forms, Legal, Traditional, Charismatic

9. F. S. Schiller 1864-1937

Place

History

Works

Theory

10. Bertrand Russel 1872-1970

Place

History

Works

Theory

11. G.E. Moore 1873-1958

Place

History

Works

Theory

12. Wittgenstein 1889-1951

Place

History

Works

Theory

13. Heidegger 1889-1976

Place

History

Works

Theory

12. Contemporary 1890-2010

1. Rudolf Carnap 1891-1970

Place

History, Member of the Vienna Circle, Supporter of Logical Positivism

Works

Theory, Developed a formal version of empericism

2. Hayek 1899-1992

Place

History

Works, Road to Serfdom, People have incompatible preferences which central planning cannot possibly account for., Planned economies lead to concentrations of power., Therefore, central planning inevitably leads to a loss of freedom.

Theory, Socialism and central planning is incompatible with individual freedom, Argued that there is a social division/dispersion of knowledge that leads to an efficient determination of prices., Prices do not necessarily represent merit., Therefore, rewards and social justice will not always be dispersed according to merit.

3. Popper 1902-1994

Place

History

Works

Theory, Was strongly influenced by how Einstein challenged the thoroughly confirmed and widely held confidence in Newton., Argued that science can strive for truth, but will never be 100% sure if/when it has achieved it., Our best form of knowledge is science, but that cannot be taken as justified truth., Insisted on the testability of scientific ideas., The objectivity of any scientific idea could only be established through critique.

4. Jean Paul Sartre 1905-1980

Place

History

Works

Theory, Existentialism, There is no creator, We are condemned to be free, Existence precedes essence, Authenticity and individuality are earned, not learned

5. Kurt Gödel 1906-1978

Place

History

Works, Incompleteness theorems

Theory, For any computable axiomatic system, If the system is consistent, it cannot be complete, The consistency of the axiums cannot be proven by the system itself

6. Qine 1908-2000

Place

History

Works

Theory, Effective critic of logical positivism, Attacked Empiricism, There is no real distinction between synthetic truths and analytic truths., The principle of reductionism - that every high level statement could ultimately be reduced to simpler statements of sense experience - does not work., This is because our ability to reason about sensory experience is constrained by the symbol language we use to reason about it. These language impose their own boundary conditions to what can be reasoned.

7. A.J. Ayer 1910-1989

Place

History

Works

Theory, Philosophy should abandon the pursuit of an absolute metaphysics., All talk about the world was a "logical construct" of our phenomenal and sensual experience., Considered philosophy the handmaiden of science - to help explain scientific meaning., Positivism was partly a response against the complete relativism of Kant. Positive = Pro-science, Positivism was also built on the progress in symbolic logic and related mathematics., Language does not have a deterministic meaning or external provable correspondence., Believed that statements of ethical judgements were meaningless.

8. Albert Camus 1913-1960

Place

History

Works

Theory, Absurdism, We value our lives and existence, But our mortality makes our lives meaningless, To embrace that paradox is absurdism

9. Gouldner 1920-1980

Place

History

Works

Theory, Critic of the Marxist attempt to define society in terms of who owns the means of physical production, and the class distinctions that such a model result in., The succession of modern ideologies owes its existence to the American and French revolutions, which made it possible to be an intellectual dissident., Each ideology seeks to destroy competing ideologies while itself claiming to be disinterested., Class struggle in the modern west occur between old money and new intelligentsia (engineers, doctors, lawyers, scientists), The struggle is not, as Marx described it, between those who controlled the means of production and the serfs below them.

10. Rawls 1921-2002

Place

History

Works, A Theory of Justice, The task of any theory of social justice is the legitimate the inequalities that emerge in the basic structure of society., To assess any system, you must do so from the 'original position', Veil of Ignorance: You must not know your place in the social structure of society, or what your natural talents may be., All participants must be disinterested in the outcome of the debate., Each person is to have an equal right to the most extensive basic liberty that is compatible with a similar liberty held by all others., If there are any inequalities in the system, they can only be justified if first - they are to everyone's advantage - and second - they be attached to positions or offices that are open to all.

Theory

11. Kuhn 1922-1996

Place

History

Works

Theory, The Structure of Scientific Revolutions, Paradigm Shift, Most scientific work is spent filling out the details of the prevailing paradigm, not in divergent or critical investigation., Over time anomalies accumulate in the prevailing paradigm, eventually building into a 'paradigm shift', Aristotle (earth is center of universe), Copernicus (sun is center of universe), Newton, Einstein, ???, A field of study is NOT a science until it has a single, unifying paradigm within which most of its practitioners work., Kuhn characterized progress in science as a highly social, and not necessarily rational, mechanism.

12. Derrida 1930-2004

Place

History

Works

Theory, Deconstructionist, Questioned the entire western tradition of trying to define a 'true logos' behind our empirical view of the world., This began with Plato's forms, and has been carried forward ever since., Follower of Nietzsche, Freud and Heidegger, Nietzsche did away with the concept of absolute truth., Freud did away with the concept that the subjective self or consciousness has any special access to the 'logos' or true forms., Heidegger did away with the notion of an 'I am' that precedes existence., He argued (from Sartre) that you must exist in order to have an essence. There is no essence without existence., Deconstructionism directly opposes the Christian belief that Jesus/God embodies the perfect 'form' of man., Like Sartre (existentialism) - the absence of a higher plan or purpose to life does NOT render life meaningless., He wants to free us from the guilt over the absence of absolute meaning or purpose in life. There can be none, so get over it.

13. Rorty 1931-2007

Place

History

Works

Theory, Absolute truth cannot be found in language - it is merely a statement that we approve of., Modern philosophers should give up the pursuit of absolute truth, and instead should seek to eliminate the cruelties of everyday life that these historical social norms have placed upon us., His basic critique of western philosophy centers on the refutation of the existence of a "God's eye-view" of the world, Pragmatism is the ultimate anti-philosophy, Rejects the goal of defining truth as the level of correspondence with an objective reality., Truth should be approached pragmatically: Does the statement work for us?, Also rejects absolute realism. Our experience of reality will always be influenced by the conceptual framework in which we analyze it. And that framework is constantly changing., Argues that many aspects of our language and are beliefs are contingent - not necessarily true or false., But it is important for our overall system of beliefs to 'hand together' and to be free of inconsistencies.

14. Nozick 1938-2002

Place

History

Works

Theory, Limited Governement, Wrote "Anarchy, State, and Utopia", Starts with the basic principle that a lone individual has certain rights that no other person may infringe upon., Then asks the question: With that as the basis, is there a form of government that can adhere to that principle? If so, what would it look like?, The starting point is an individual who has the right to personal property. That is the state of nature., Nozick does not attempt to justify this starting point - where does that initial right derive from and can it be proven. He simply takes it 'as-is'., This is a weakness that others have used to refute much of his arguments., He then argues that only a very limited state may exist that would not infringe upon that fundamental right., Involuntary redistribution of the wealth for even a single individual would be illegitimate., Nozick argues that a minimalist government is possible that does not infringe upon this basic right, and that it can be achieved without gaining the consent or participation of ALL individuals (which would necessarily entail some amount of coercion)., The only role of this minimal government is to enforce protection rights (police and judicial)., Redistribution of Wealth, Taxes mean that others have a claim of ownership in you, and are therefore morally equivalent to forced labor and slavery., However, charitable redistribution is fine - only forced redistribution is wrong., How do we assess a just society, The means: The individual steps that led to the current distribution of wealth were each fair, just and entered into freely by both participants., The ends: The resulting distribution of wealth is equal among all participants, regardless of whether coercion was used to move some wealth from one to another.

15. W.W. Bartley 1934-1990

Place

History, Close collaborator with Karl Popper

Works

Theory, Best known for pancritical rationalism, Every possible option or explanation will have one valid criticism., The goal is to choose the option whose criticism you are most willing to accept., Discussion of pancritical rationalism

6. Late Medieval 1175-1350

1. Anselm of Canterbury 1033-1109

2. Robert Grosseteste 1175-1253

Place

History

Works

Theory

3. William of Auvergne 1180-1249

Place

History

Works

Theory

4. Alexander of Hales 1181-1245

Place

History

Works

Theory

5. Albert the Great 1193-1280

Place

History

Works

Theory

6. Roger Bacon 1214-1294

Place

History

Works

Theory

7. Henry of Ghent 1217-1293

Place

History

Works

Theory

8. Bonaventure 1221-1274

Place

History

Works

Theory

9. Thomas Aquinus 1225-1274

Place

History

Works, Summa Theologica

Theory, Argues that the eternity of the world cannot be demonstrated by pure logic., Aristotelian, Truth could be achieved through natural or divine reason, Four Cardinal Virtues, Prudence, Temperance, Justice, Fortitude, Five Ways on the Nature of God, God is simple, without composition of parts, God is perfect, lacking nothing, God is infinite, God is immutable, God is one

10. Siger of Brabant 1240-1280

Place

History

Works

Theory

11. Giles of Rome 1243-1316

Place

History

Works

Theory

12. John Duns Scotus 1266-1308

Place

History

Works

Theory

13. Marsilius of Padua 1275-1342

Place

History

Works

Theory

14. William of Occam 1287-1347

Place

History

Works

Theory

5. Early Medieval 815-1207

1. John Scotus 815-877

Place

History

Works

Theory

2. Alfarabi 872-950

Place

History

Works

Theory

3. Avicenna 980-1037

Place

History

Works

Theory

4. Avicebron 1021-1058

Place

History

Works

Theory

5. Anselm 1033-1109

Place

History

Works

Theory

6. Roscelin 1050-1125

Place

History

Works

Theory

7. William of champeaux 1070-1121

Place

History

Works

Theory

8. Abelard 1079-1142

Place

History

Works

Theory

9. Hugh of St. Victor 1096-1141

Place

History

Works

Theory

10. Peter Lombard 1096-1164

Place

History

Works

Theory

11. Richard of St. Victor 1110-1173

Place

History

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Theory

12. John of Salisbury 1120-1180

Place

History

Works

Theory

13. Averroes 1126-1198

Place

History

Works

Theory

14. Moses Maimonides 1138-1204

Place

History

Works

Theory

15. Amalric of Bene 1140-1207

Place

History

Works

Theory

4. Christian 100-525

1. Justin 100-165

Place

History

Works

Theory

2. Clement of Alexandria 150-215

Place

History

Works

Theory

3. Tertullian 160-225

Place

History

Works

Theory

4. Origen 184-253

Place

History

Works

Theory

5. Ambrose 340-397

Place

History

Works

Theory

6. Gregory of Nyssa 335-395

Place

History

Works

Theory

7. Augustine 354-430

Place

History

Works, Confessions

Theory, Combined christian with platonic, The Grace of God, Is grace a gift of god, or must it be earned?, Predestination - God knows from the start who will receive The Grace

8. Pseudo Dionysius 460-540

Place

History

Works

Theory

9. Boethius 480-524

Place

History

Works

Theory

3. Roman 185 BC-485 AD

1. Panaetius 185-110 BC

Place

History

Works

Theory

2. Posidonius 135-51 BC

Place

History

Works

Theory

3. Cicero 106-43 BC

Place

History, Brought Greek philosophy to the Romans

Works

Theory, Combined Skeptics, Epicureanism, Virtue is happiness from Aristotle, Epicurean principle of refined and disciplined pleasure

4. Philo of Alexandria 20 BC-50 AD

Place

History

Works

Theory

5. Seneca 4 BC-65 AD

Place

History

Works

Theory

6. Plutarch 46-120

Place

History

Works

Theory

7. Epictetus 55-135

Place

History

Works

Theory

8. Sextus Empiricus 160-210

Place

History

Works

Theory

9. Plotinus 205-270

Place

History

Works

Theory

10. Porphyry 234-305

Place

History

Works

Theory

11. Iamblichus 245-325

Place

History

Works

Theory

12. Proclus 412-485

Place

History

Works

Theory

2. Classical Greek 470-205 BC

1. Socrates 469-399 BC

Place

History

Works

Theory, Ethical truth was absolute, "To Know the Good is to Do the Good"

2. Prodicus 465-395 BC

Place

History

Works

Theory

3. Hippias 460-399 BC

Place

History

Works

Theory

4. Thucydides 460-395 BC

Place

History, The Pelopomnesian War - his greatest contribution to history., "The Father of Scientific History", "The Father of the school of political realism"

Works

Theory

5. Antisthenes 445-365 BC

Place

History

Works

Theory

6. Euclid of Megara 435-365 BC

Place

History

Works

Theory

7. Aristippus 435-356 BC

Place

History

Works

Theory

8. Plato 423-347 BC

Place

History, Invented Metaphysics, The Socratic Method, Invented Dualism of Mind and Body, Forms

Works

Theory, Republic, Shadows on the Cave Wall, Women should hold political power, Political leaders chosen from among best & brightest, Anti-democratic, What is Justice?, Give each man his due, Might makes right, Reason, No nuclear family, No private property, Philosopher "guardians" of Reason will rule, Asked the question "What is virtue?"

9. Diogenes 412-323 BC

Place

History

Works

Theory

10. Aristotle 384-322 BC

Place

History, Invented term "physics", Greek for "Nature"

Works

Theory, Criticism of The Republic/Plato, Family is rooted in human nature, Idea of private property is 'natural', Rejected concentration of power, Supported rule by middle class, Epistomology, We acquire our knowledge of the world via our senses, Ethics, Defined ethics as "What is the good goal of human life?", Happiness is the life lived by the virtuous person, Four Primary Virtues, Courage, Temperance, Justice, Wisdom, Happiness is the goal of human life, Happiness originally meant "success", Happiness means good at being human

11. Pyrrho 360-270 BC

Place

History

Works

Theory

12. Epicurus 341-270 BC

Place

History

Works

Theory

13. Zeno of Citium 334-262 BC

Place

History, Considered founder of Stoicism

Works

Theory, "Happiness is a good flow of life", Pathos is a disturbance of the mind repugnant to Reason and against Nature., Virtua is the consistency of the soul with Right Reason and Universal Reason (logic)

14. Cleanthes 330-230 BC

Place

History

Works

Theory

15. Chrysippus 279-206 BC

Place

History

Works

Theory

16. Carneades 214-129 BC

Place

History

Works

Theory

1. Pre-Socratic 625-370 BC

1. Thales 624-546 BC

Place

History

Works

Theory

2. Anaximander 610-546 BC

Place

History

Works

Theory

3. Anaximenes 585-525 BC

Place

History

Works

Theory

4. Xenophanes 570-475 BC

Place

History

Works

Theory

5. Pythagoras 570-495 BC

Place

History

Works

Theory, Believed in reincarnation, Heavily influenced by mathematics and mysticism, Transmigration of the Soul was a core belief, Were vegetarians

6. Parmenides 540-450 BC

Place

History

Works

Theory, Only known work was "On Nature" - a poem, Claimed that truth cannot be know through sensory perception, only through logos.

7. Heraclitus 535-475 BC

Place

History

Works

Theory, "No man steps in the same river twice.", Diogenes primary biographer

8. Anaxagoras 510-428 BC

Place

History

Works

Theory

9. Protagoras 490-420 BC

Place

History

Works

Theory, Considered the first sophist

10. Zeno of Elea 490-430 BC

Place

History

Works

Theory, Realist/Materialist, Reducto ad Absurdum, Best known for his Paradoxes, Arhilles and the Tortoise

11. Empedocles 490-430 BC

Place

History

Works

Theory

12. Gorgias 485-380 BC

Place

History

Works

Theory

13. Herodotus 484-425 BC

Place

History, First known writer to collect and document his ideas systematically., Greek Historian

Works

Theory

14. Melissus 470-410 BC

Place

History

Works

Theory

15. Leucippus 460-370 BC

Place

History

Works

Theory

16. Democritus 460-370 BC

Place

History

Works

Theory