'Together We Can End Violence Against Women & Girls - a strategy'

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'Together We Can End Violence Against Women & Girls - a strategy' by Mind Map: 'Together We Can End Violence Against Women & Girls - a strategy'

1. Evidence Based Policy? / Does the strategy conform to neoliberal / managerial 'evidence' based problem-solving approaches as opposed to political driven change?

1.1. What evidence is used?

1.1.1. British Crime Survey; 'victim' based evidence used to support the claims that women are victims of particular types of violence, i.e. domestic violence & sexual assault.

1.1.1.1. data available

1.1.2. 'Together We Can End Violence Against Women & Girls' consultation; including evidence from victims of violence, frontline staff and public

1.1.2.1. data requested

1.1.3. Sara Paynes' Victims Experience Review

1.1.4. HO Survey on public attitudes towards VAWGs, Feb 2009

1.1.4.1. data requested

1.1.5. NSPCC & University of Bristol 'Partner Exploitation & Violence in Teenage Intimate Partner Relationships'

1.1.5.1. data requested

1.1.6. Department of Health figures for children witnessing domestic abuse, 2002

1.1.7. CPS 'Violence against women crime report 2007-2008'

1.2. What evidence is in the process of being gathered as part of the strategic agenda?

1.2.1. NHS Health Task Force

1.2.2. Dept for Children, Schools & Families VAWGs Advisory Group

1.2.3. Dr L papadopoulo's report on the sexualisation of young people

1.2.3.1. Due Jan 2010

1.2.4. Robust local data on VAWGs coupled to needs assessments

1.2.5. Investigating the possibility of a national, regional or local dataset

1.2.6. Baroness Stern's review of the responses of the CJS and other agencies to rape complaints

1.2.6.1. Due Mar 2010

1.3. What does the statistical evidence presented say?

1.4. What statistical techniques are used and are they appropriate?

1.4.1. Where modelling is used in the reference source, it is GLMs. QUESTION - if there is an assumption that women are subject to this violence because they are women, is the underlying assumption of independence between individuals in GLMs valid?

1.4.1.1. What are the results if an assumption of dependence is made based on gender? E.g. use multi-level modelling which takes gender as a separate level to other characteristics?

1.4.2. There is no description of statistical techniques utilised to produce the evidence cited, rather, all the evidence comes from secondary sources, which present the results of analysed data.

1.5. What evidence is missing / not invoked?

1.5.1. Women as victims of other types of violence, e.g. BCS figures on physical assaults by a stanger

1.5.2. Men as victims of this type of violence

1.5.3. The perpetrators of violence

1.5.4. victims of these types of violence within same sex relationships

1.5.5. Female non-victims

1.6. What about 'evidence' which cannot be measured / cannot be measured using the current 'managerial' framework? For example the comparisons made with co-production by NEF in 'The Challenge of Co-Production'

1.6.1. data missing not at random

2. Who is the focus of the strategy & in what capacity?

2.1. Women; but only discussed as 'victims' and are rendered passive

2.2. Men; i) as 'partners' of women; ii) the majority not being perpetrators, 'most men and teenage boys are not violent towards their partners and would condemn VAWGs'; iii) as active agents of social change; iv) minimal narration of men as perpetrators of VAWGs

2.3. Frontline practitioners; as agents of early intervention & subsequent prevention

2.4. Local Statutory Agencies; largely responsible for delivery

2.5. Cross-Government Departments;

3. Aims

3.1. To eliminate VAWGs

3.2. To support women and girls as victims

4. Key Areas

4.1. 1 - PREVENTION; changing attitudes & preventing violence

4.2. 2 - PROVISION; helping women & girls continue with their lives

4.3. 3 - PROTECTION; delivering an effective CJS

5. Previous strategy; serious violent crime agenda

5.1. 'Saving Lives, Reducing Harm, Protecting the Public: An action plan for the tackling of violence 2008-11'

5.1.1. 'Cutting Crime: A New Partnership 2008-11'

5.1.2. Strategic Plan for Reducing Reoffending 2008-11'

5.1.3. Criminal Justice Strategic Plan 2008-11: working together to cut crime & deliver justice

6. Delivery Responsibility

6.1. Voluntary Sector

6.2. Frontline professionals

6.3. Teachers

6.4. Local Strategic Partnerships & Local Area Agreements

6.5. Statutory bodies - 'core business'

6.6. NHS Operating Framework

7. Voluntary Sector relationships

7.1. Voluntary Sector as delivers of strategy

7.2. Voluntary sector as 'partners' in developing policy, e.g. EVAW

7.3. Voluntary sector as challengers of official policy / active agents in alternative strategies, e.g. Truth about rape; Million Women Rise; White Ribbon Campaign

8. FRAMEWORK; confused. VAWGs is not defined soley within a CJS frame. The strategy mentions Human Rights, but does not explicitly place VAWGs within this frame. The strategy references equality, but does not link VAWGs and equality issues, unlike other agencies, for example the UN, 'women's inequality is a cause & consequence of VAW'. The infra-structure supported and further developed by the strategy points to a 'risk management' framing. Note the disparity between the defining and the framing.

8.1. Risk Management, e.g. MARACs, SDVCs and IDVAs all manage 'high risk' cases.

8.2. No discussion / links to women's equality in other arenas, e.g. political representation, the glass ceiling, income parity, poverty levels, health inequalities etc.

9. Defining Term; Violence Against Women and Girls. Draws almost exclusively on the UN Human Rights framing; note the disparity between the explicit defining of VAWGs using UN HRs agendas and the missing HRs frame as guiding principles throughout the rest of the strategy, e.g. no explicit recognition of a link between VAWGs and gender equality. Additionally, VAWGs is defined as an 'enduring social problem'

9.1. UN Declaration on the Elimination of VAW; 'any act of gender-based violence that results in, or is likely to result in physical, sexual or psychological harm or suffering

9.2. UN Convention on the Elimination of all forms of discrimination against women; 'violence directed at a woman, because she is a woman or acts of violence which are suffered disproportionately by women'

9.3. European Convention on Human Rights

9.4. The Platform for Action

9.5. Women 2000

9.6. Beijing +10 Regional Conference

9.7. UN Security Counsel Resolutions 1820, 1888 & 1325

9.8. Convention on the Rights of the Child

9.9. What does the move from defining the 'different' types of violence individually (e.g. domestic violence, sexual assault, rape etc) to an encompassing term 'VAWGs' mean, who uses it and in what context?

9.9.1. Government

9.9.2. Practitioners

9.9.3. Campaigners

9.9.4. The public

10. ACCOUNTABILITY; the strategy is cross-government and cross-hierarchical in terms of national and local government. However, it also makes clear that responsibility for delivery is local, with national government in a facilitation role.

10.1. Single inter-ministerial group

10.1.1. Cross-department delivery board, managed by the Home Office and reporting to the inter-ministerial group

10.2. Annual independent review of progress

10.3. Annual parliamentary debate

11. Comparison with other strategies aiming to tackle 'violence'

11.1. Hate Crime

11.2. Gang violence

11.3. Street violence

11.4. Youth violence

11.5. Child abuse

12. SILENCES?

12.1. Women as victims of public space violence

12.2. Women as non-victims of these types of violence, i.e. women are only in gendered narrations in the strategy as victims / potential victims

12.3. Same sex relationship violence

12.4. men as victims; in what circumstances, severity of injury and motivations for violence

12.5. Women as active agents of social change

12.6. Naming perpetrators of VAWGs, not just in terms of gender, but in terms of relationships. The only relationship mentioned is 'partners', but the strategy does not name household members, friends, etc.

13. Popular discourses on VAWGs

13.1. HO attitudes survey show little sympathy for victims of violence

13.2. Need to investigate other sources of 'attitudinal' evidence on VAWGs

13.2.1. Nicholson & Wilson, (2004); 'Is Domestic Violence a Gender Issue? Views from a British City', in Journal of Community & Applied Social Psychology, 14, pp.266-283

14. Who was influential in the shaping of this strategy?

15. Who is the imagined audience for this strategy

16. In What theoretical perspectives can be utilised in policy analysis?

17. How does this strategy for England and Wales relate to other VAW strategies?

17.1. Scotland

17.2. United Nations

17.3. European Union

17.4. EHRC