Statistical evidence to support the claims of VAWGs is from then BCS, for example the strategy references Walby & Allen saying 'around half of all women and girls in England & Wales could recall being victims of violence over their lifetime'. However, this can be problematised in two ways (excluding the temporal gap between the data collection in 2001 and the strategy launch in 2009); i) What Walby & Allen actually say is that 'over 45% of women and 26% of men aged 16-59yrs could recall being subject to domestic violence (abuse, threats or force), sexual victimisation or stalking, at least once in their lifetime). Therefore the Walby & Allen figure exclude the experience of 'girls', commonly defined as those under 16yrs. ii) The strategy talks about experiences of 'violence', but in quoting Walby & Allen, the types of violence they refer to are specific, and do not include experience of 'public violence' - this is implicit in the strategy, but not made explicit with a discussion of the distinctions between public and private violences.
British Crime Survey; 'victim' based evidence used to support the claims that women are victims of particular types of violence, i.e. domestic violence & sexual assault., data available
'Together We Can End Violence Against Women & Girls' consultation; including evidence from victims of violence, frontline staff and public, data requested
Sara Paynes' Victims Experience Review
HO Survey on public attitudes towards VAWGs, Feb 2009, data requested
NSPCC & University of Bristol 'Partner Exploitation & Violence in Teenage Intimate Partner Relationships', data requested
Department of Health figures for children witnessing domestic abuse, 2002
CPS 'Violence against women crime report 2007-2008'
NHS Health Task Force
Dept for Children, Schools & Families VAWGs Advisory Group
Dr L papadopoulo's report on the sexualisation of young people, Due Jan 2010
Robust local data on VAWGs coupled to needs assessments
Investigating the possibility of a national, regional or local dataset
Baroness Stern's review of the responses of the CJS and other agencies to rape complaints, Due Mar 2010
i) half of all women & girls recall experiencing violence in their lifetime; ii) Nearly 1million women experience at least one incidence of domestic abuse each yr; iii) Close to 10,000 women are sexually assaulted every week; iv) At least 750,000 children a year witness domestic violence; v) Most men and teenage boys are not violent towards their partners and would condemn those who are; vi) BCS shows a 64% reduction in the number of incidents of DV in Eng & Wales since 1997; vii) CPS figures show 2005/06 - 2007/08 the conviction rate for DV rose from 60% to 69%, with the number of prosecutions increasing from 49,782 to 63,819; viii) CPS figures show that from 2006/07 to 2007/08 conviction rate for rape increased from 55% to 58%, with the number of cases prosecuted rising from 3,264 to 3,503; ix) More than 1/4 women in Eng & Wales (4.8million) since age of 16yrs has experienced at least one incidence of DV; x) Of the 88% of young people in intimate partner relationships, 33% of girls reported some form of sexual partner violence; xi) 2008 Forced Marriage Unit recieved 1600+ calls to its helpline on suspected incidents of forced marriage; xii)Estimated to be around 80,000 people involved in prostitution in UK; xiii) Widely quoted to be 12 honour-related murders per year; xiv) 3.7 million women in Eng & Wales have been sexually assaulted at some point since aged 16yrs; xv) Around 10,000 women are sexually assaulted & 2000 women raped every week; xvi) 34% of all rapes recorded by the police are committed against children under the age of 16yrs; xvii) In 2003 there were up to 4000 women trafficked for sexual exploitation in the UK; xviii) 20% of women say they have experienced stalking at some point since the age of 16yrs; xix) Estimated 66,000 women in Eng & Wales in 2001 had been subject to genital mutilation; xx)Over half women in prison say thay have suffered DV and 1/3 have experienced sexual assault; xxi) Women are more likely than men to experience all forms of intimate violence, but risks differ for different groups of women, e.g. younger women are more likely to be victims than older women, sub-groups more likely to experience some forms of violence e.g. FGM, forced marraige and 'so-called honour violence' and BME women; xxii) Nearly half the public polled ion HO survey said a woman should be held wholly or partially responsible if she worked as a prostitute and was sexually assaulted or raped; xxiii) A third polled said a woman should be held fully or partially responsible if she was drunk & was sexually assaulted or raped; xxiv)One fifth polled thought it was acceptable in some circumstances for a man to hit or slap his wife or girlfriend in response to her being dressed in sexy or revealing clothing in public; xxv) 13-15yr olds are as likely to experience violence as the over 16yr olds; xxvi) 25% of girls and 18% of boys surveyed reported experiencing some form of physical violence; xxvii) Nearly 75% of girls reported experiencing some form of emotional abuse; xxviii) A third of girls & 16% of boys reported experiencing some form of sexual violence; xxix) Over 75% of girls with an older partner reported experiencing physical violence; xxx) The Offender Assessment System shows that over a 1/4 of male offenders under probation supervision & 17% of male prisoners are DV perpetrators; xxxi) Average reduction of 50% in repeat victimisation for cases reviewed at a MARAC;
Where modelling is used in the reference source, it is GLMs. QUESTION - if there is an assumption that women are subject to this violence because they are women, is the underlying assumption of independence between individuals in GLMs valid?, What are the results if an assumption of dependence is made based on gender? E.g. use multi-level modelling which takes gender as a separate level to other characteristics?
There is no description of statistical techniques utilised to produce the evidence cited, rather, all the evidence comes from secondary sources, which present the results of analysed data.
If 50% of women and girls are experiencing violence at some point in their lifetime, but 'most' men and teenage males are not violent towards their partners, who is committing the violence?
Women as victims of other types of violence, e.g. BCS figures on physical assaults by a stanger
Men as victims of this type of violence
The perpetrators of violence
victims of these types of violence within same sex relationships
data missing not at random
'Cutting Crime: A New Partnership 2008-11'
Strategic Plan for Reducing Reoffending 2008-11'
Criminal Justice Strategic Plan 2008-11: working together to cut crime & deliver justice
Cross-department delivery board, managed by the Home Office and reporting to the inter-ministerial group
'any crime or incident where the perpetrator's hostility or prejudice against an identifiable group of people is a factor in determining who is victimised' and ' any crime or non-crime incident is considered a hate crime if the action is perceived to be motivated by the above by the victim or any other person'
Nicholson & Wilson, (2004); 'Is Domestic Violence a Gender Issue? Views from a British City', in Journal of Community & Applied Social Psychology, 14, pp.266-283