Chapter 5 Macromolecules

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Chapter 5 Macromolecules by Mind Map: Chapter 5 Macromolecules

1. carbohydrates

1.1. monosaccharides

1.1.1. general formula CH2O

1.1.2. function: quick energy

1.1.3. glucose, fructose, ribose

1.2. disaccharides

1.2.1. two monosaccharides joined

1.2.2. maltose = glucose + glucose

1.2.3. sucrose = glucose + fructose

1.3. polysaccharides

1.3.1. multiple monosaccharides

1.3.2. functions energy storage animals = glycogen plants = starch structural support plants = cellulose fungi, arthropods = chitin

2. lipids

2.1. structure

2.1.1. not based on monomer/polymers

2.1.2. grouped together b/c they are hydrophobic

2.1.3. structure glycerol fatty acids

2.2. types

2.2.1. fat/triglyceride structure glycerol molecule 3 fatty acid chains function

2.2.2. phospholipid structure glycerol "head" two fatty acid "tails" function

2.2.3. steroid structure function cholesterol hormones

3. proteins

3.1. structure

3.1.1. amino acid side (R) group central carbon amino group carboxyl group

3.1.2. polypeptide/protein primary structure sequence of amino acids held together by peptide bonds secondary structure alpha-helix, beta-pleated sheet held together by H-bonds between amino acids tertiary structure folding of one polypeptide into more complex shapes caused by interactions between R groups quaternary structure association of two or more polypeptide chains into one large protein caused by interactions between R groups

3.1.3. importance of structure "lock-and-key" model denaturing

3.2. function

3.2.1. enzymes

3.2.2. structural

3.2.3. storage

3.2.4. transport

3.2.5. hormones

3.2.6. receptor

3.2.7. movement

3.2.8. defensive

4. nucleic acids

4.1. structure

4.1.1. nucleotide sugar nitrogenous base phosphate group

4.1.2. nucleic acid

4.2. function

4.2.1. DNA

4.2.2. RNA

5. assembly

5.1. size

5.1.1. monomers small, simple "pieces" basic "building block"

5.1.2. polymers larger, more complex built out of many monomers joined together

5.2. chemical reactions

5.2.1. condensation rxn bonds two monomers together or a monomer to a polymer forms a water molecule

5.2.2. hydrolysis rxn adds a water to split a chemical bond separates monomers from each other