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Chapter 5 Macromolecules by Mind Map: Chapter 5
Macromolecules
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Chapter 5 Macromolecules

carbohydrates

monosaccharides

general formula CH2O

function: quick energy

glucose, fructose, ribose

disaccharides

two monosaccharides joined

maltose = glucose + glucose

sucrose = glucose + fructose

polysaccharides

multiple monosaccharides

functions, energy storage, animals = glycogen, plants = starch, structural support, plants = cellulose, fungi, arthropods = chitin

lipids

structure

not based on monomer/polymers

grouped together b/c they are hydrophobic

structure, glycerol, fatty acids

types

fat/triglyceride, structure, glycerol molecule, 3 fatty acid chains, saturated fat, unsaturated fat, function

phospholipid, structure, glycerol "head", two fatty acid "tails", function

steroid, structure, function, cholesterol, hormones

proteins

structure

amino acid, side (R) group, central carbon, amino group, carboxyl group

polypeptide/protein, primary structure, sequence of amino acids, held together by peptide bonds, secondary structure, alpha-helix, beta-pleated sheet, held together by H-bonds between amino acids, tertiary structure, folding of one polypeptide into more complex shapes, caused by interactions between R groups, hydrophobic interactions, van der Waals interactions, hydrogen bonds, disulfide bridges, quaternary structure, association of two or more polypeptide chains into one large protein, caused by interactions between R groups, hydrophobic interactions, van der Waals interactions, hydrogen bonds, disulfide bridges

importance of structure, "lock-and-key" model, denaturing

function

enzymes

structural

storage

transport

hormones

receptor

movement

defensive

nucleic acids

structure

nucleotide, sugar, nitrogenous base, phosphate group

nucleic acid

function

DNA

RNA

assembly

size

monomers, small, simple "pieces", basic "building block"

polymers, larger, more complex, built out of many monomers joined together

chemical reactions

condensation rxn, bonds two monomers together or a monomer to a polymer, forms a water molecule

hydrolysis rxn, adds a water to split a chemical bond, separates monomers from each other