Elements of Music

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Elements of Music by Mind Map: Elements of Music

1. When notating music, composers have traditionally used Italian words, and their abbreviations, to indicate dynamics. The most common terms are: For extremes of softness and loudness, composers use ppp or pppp and fff or ffff. The following notations indicate gradual changes in dynamics. (Kelly, T01, 1)

2. Canon- A canon is a contrapuntal composition that employs a melody with one or more imitations of the melody played after a given duration (e.g. quarter rest, one measure, etc.). Shenlynn To1 Reg 10

2.1. The initial melody is called the leader (or dux), while the imitative melody, which is played in a different voice, is called the follower (or comes). The follower must imitate the leader, either as an exact replication of its rhythms and intervals or some transformation thereof. Shenlynn T01 Reg10

2.2. Accompanied canon is a canon accompanied by one or more additional independent parts which do not take part in imitating the melody. Shenlynn T01 Reg10

2.3. The most popular canons heard today are from the Baroque period, such as Johann Pachelbel's Canon in D (Pachelbel's Canon), in which a canon between the three upper voices are accompanied by a repeating bass melody or ground, or every third variation in Bach's Goldberg Variations.Shenlynn T01 Reg10

3. when there is a change in how many instruments are heard, a dynamic change results; such a change may be made either suddenly or gradually. (Kelly, T01, 1)

4. Pitch is the relative highness or lowness that we hear in a sound or music. (kalsheny valerie T03 7)

5. Lyrics (in singular form Lyric) are a set of words that make up a song. The writer of lyrics is a lyricist or lyrist. The meaning of lyrics can either be explicit or implicit. Some lyrics are abstract, almost unintelligible, and, in such cases, their explication emphasizes form, articulation, meter, and symmetry of expression. (Tan Hui Ying, T01, 18)

6. The pitch of a sound is determined by the frequency of its vibrations. (Yong Ling T03 Reg 19)

6.1. For instance, the faster the vibrations, the higher the pitch; the slower the vibrations, the lower the pitch. (Yong Ling T03 Reg 19)

6.2. In general, the smaller the vibrating object, the faster its vibrations and the higher its pitch. All other things being equal, plucking a short string produces a higher pitch than plucking a long string. (Yong Ling T03 Reg 19)

6.2.1. For e.g. The relatively short strings of a violin produce higher pitches than do the longer strings of a double bass. (Yong Ling T03 Reg 19)

6.2.2. For example, the pitch of a double bass is lower than that of the violin because the double bass has longer strings. Pitch may be definite (i.e. piano) or indefinite (i.e. cymbals). (Hidayah, T01, 15)

7. Pitch- the relative highness or lowness that we hear in a sound (Yong Ling T03 Reg 19)

7.1. It is determined by the frequency of its vibrations. (Zerline, T01, Reg 5)

7.2. The smaller the vibrating object, the faster its vibrations and thus the higher the pitch. (Zerline, T01, Reg 5)

7.2.1. The short strings of violin produces higher pitches than the long strings on a double bass. (Zerline, T01, Reg 5)

7.3. Vibration frequency is measured in cycles per second.[Cheryl,To3, 20]

7.4. In music, a sound that has a definite pitch is called a tone. It has a specific frequency, such as 440 cycles per second. The vibrations of a tone are regular and reach the ear at equal time intervals. [Cheryl,To3, 20]

7.4.1. Two tones will sound different when they have different pitches. [Cheryl,To3,20]

7.4.2. The "distance" in pitch between any two tones is called an interval.[Cheryl,To3,20]

7.5. Crescendo: A gradual increase in loudness. It often creates excitement, particularly when the pitch rises too. [Cheryl,To3,20]

7.6. Decrescendo: a gradual decrease in loudness. It can be used to convey a sense of calm.[Cheryl,To3,20]

7.7. The Perfect Pitch: It refers to the ability of some persons to recognize the pitch of a musical note without any discernable pitch standard, as if the person can recognize a pitch like the eye discerns the color of an object. Most people apparently have only a sense of relative pitch and can recognize a musical interval, but not an isolated pitch. (FROM ahh...... to ... AHHH!!!!)

8. Harmony - the combination of notes (or chords) played together (Michele T01 Reg 20)

8.1. Accompanies and supports the melody (Michele T01 Reg 20)

8.2. Created by playing a group of notes behind the melody (Michele T01 Reg 20)

8.2.1. The use of simultaneous pitches, tones and chords. (Nissa, T04, reg 13)

8.2.2. Harmony is originated from melody. Harmony gives the music texture or mood. (Hazel, t03, reg 02) Different types of harmony There are the coordinate and subordinate harmony. Subordinate harmony is the hierarchical tonality or tonal harmony well known today, while coordinate harmony is the older Medieval and Renaissance tonalité ancienne, "the term is meant to signify that sonorities are linked one after the other without giving rise to the impression of a goal-directed development. A first chord forms a 'progression' with a second chord, and a second with a third. But the former chord progression is independent of the later one and vice versa." Coordinate harmony follows direct (adjacent) relationships rather than indirect as in subordinate. Interval cycles create symmetrical harmonies, which have been extensively used by the composers Alban Berg, George Perle, Arnold Schoenberg, Béla Bartók, and Edgard Varèse's Density 21.5. Other types of harmony are based upon the intervals used in constructing the chords used in that harmony. Most chords used in western music are based on "tertial" harmony, or chords built with the interval of thirds. In the chord C Major7, C-E is a major third; E-G is a minor third; and G to B is a major third. Other types of harmony consist of quartal harmony and quintal harmony. (Hazel, t03, reg 02)

8.3. When different notes and sounds blend together melodiously. (Peiqi T01 Reg 04)

8.4. The slower the vibration and the bigger the vibrating object, the lower the pitch. (Joey T01 Reg 6)

8.5. The relationship between a series of chords.(Hidayah, TO1, 15)

8.5.1. New node

8.6. heightens the meaning of text

9. Pitch - based on the frequency of vibration and the size of the vibrating object (Joey T01 Reg 6)

9.1. The faster the vibration and the smaller the vibrating object, the higher the pitch. (Joey T01 Reg 6)

9.1.1. In string instruments, pitch is related to the length and thickness of the string that vibrates. (Julienne Cheok, T02, Reg. No. 7)

9.2. Sound of a note is called its pitch. (Cindy T03 Reg 4)

9.3. Each of the 88 keys on the piano represents a note or pitch individually. (Cindy T03 Reg 4)

9.3.1. Each key represents a different note or pitch. So how do we write all those notes on a piece of paper? The notes are organized in smaller groups that fit on a staff (the 5 horizontal lines) and notes are named after letters of the alphabet A-G. (Debbie T01 Reg 2)

9.4. Classified into definite and indefinite pitch. (Ven T02 Reg 8)

9.4.1. A sound with a definite pitch is one where it is easy to distinguish the pitch of the sound. (Ven T02 Reg 8) a sound that has a definite pitch is called a TONE (Dawn Sng T04, Reg.3) the distance between the highest and the lowest TONE that an instrument or voice can produce is called PITCH RANGE/RANGE (Dawn Sng T04, Reg.3)

9.4.2. A sound with an indefinite pitch is one where the pitch is difficult or almost impossible to discern. However, it is still possible to compare the pitches of two sounds with indefinite pitches. (Ven T02 Reg 8) It is still possible for two sounds of indefinite pitch to clearly be higher or lower than one another, for instance, a snare drum invariably sounds higher in pitch than a bass drum, though both have indefinite pitch, because its sound contains higher frequencies. (Debra, T04, Reg 4)

9.5. Concert pitch is the pitch reference to which a group of musical instruments are tuned for performance. Concert pitch varies from ensemble to ensemble. (Debra, T04, Reg 4)

10. Dynamics - abbreviations or symbols used to signify the degree of loudness or softness of a piece of music. (Joey T01 Reg 6)

10.1. Loudness is related to the amplitude of the vibration that produces the sound. The harder a guitar string is plucked, the louder its sound. (Serene T03 Reg 21)

10.1.1. For extreme loudness, composers use ff (Fortissimo) or fff (Forte Fortissimo) or even, ffff (Fortondoando) (Diana Kaswadi T01 Reg 14)

10.2. Change in volume (Joey T01 Reg 6)

10.2.1. Decrescendo: a gradual decrease in loudness. It can be used to convey a sense of calm.( Cherrie T03 Reg 03)This would affect the pitch of the notes that will be played( Pitch is the highness and the lowness of the sound we hear in the music) (Cheeying, T04 Reg10)

10.2.2. Crescendo: A gradual increase in loudness. It often creates excitement, particularly when the pitch rises too (Cherrie T03 Reg 03) Often, depending on the direction of the arrow, a crescendo or decrescendo is written as arrows under the notes on music scores. If the head of the arrow is pointing towards the left, it is crescendo, vice versa. (Elaine Hoong T02 Reg 05)

10.2.3. Forte means loud and piano means quiet. (Cindy T03 Reg 4) Forte is notated by a cursive f. while piano is notated by a cursive p. (Elaine Hoong T02 Reg 05)

10.3. Dynamic levels are a natural indicator for emotional mood. (Weiling T03 Reg 9)

10.3.1. Loud dynamics are associated with vigor, turmoil, conflict, etc. (Weiling T03 reg 9)

10.3.2. Soft dynamics are associated with tranquillity, repose, calmness, etc. Love songs, lullabies, wistful and melancholy songs and certain sacred music tend to be soft. (Weiling T03 Reg 9) For extremes of softness, composers use pp (pianissimo), ppp (pianississimo), or even, ppp (pianississimo possibile). (Diana Kaswadi T01 Reg 14)

10.3.3. The wrong dynamic level has the effect of making a piece of music ineffective and illogical as an indicator of mood. (Weiling T03 Reg 9)

11. Melody - the tune of a song or piece of music (Michele T01 Reg 20)

11.1. Can be a tune or a voice (Michele T01 Reg 20)

11.2. Usually repeated throughout a song or piece in various forms (Michele T01 Reg 20)

11.2.1. A melody moves by small intervals called steps or by larger ones called leaps (Cherrie T03 Reg 03) A step is the interval between two adjacent tones in the do-re-mi scale (from do to re, re to mi, etc.). (Yong Ling T03 Reg 19) Any interval larger than a step is a leap (do to mi). (Yong Ling T03 Reg 19)

11.2.2. The melody will usually express the tone( sad or happy) of the song. (Cheeying T04 Reg 10)

11.3. The up and down travel of melodic pitches is called melodic curve. (Weiling T03 Reg 9)

11.3.1. Upward-moving melodic lines build tension and create the effect of goal-oriented forward motion. (Weiling T03 Reg 9)

11.4. It is a series of single tones which add up to a recognizable whole. (Cindy T03 Reg 4)

11.5. A melody begins, moves, and ends; it has direction, shape, and continuity. (Cindy T03 Reg 4)

11.5.1. The up-and-down movement of its pitches conveys tension and release, expectation and arrival. (Yong Ling T03 Reg 19)

11.6. Melody is the tune. It is the easiest part of music to remember, it's the part that you hum. (Debbie T01 Reg 2)

11.6.1. Melody terms are listed below. • Step= interval between two adjacent tones • Climax= highest tone of a melody • Legato= tones are connected • Staccato= tones are detached (Wei Kim, T01, Reg 3)

11.6.2. Melody/tune remains the same, regardless of the pitch/key in which it is sung or played. (Elaine Hoong T02 Reg 05)

11.7. serve as a starting point for a more extended piece of music, in the extended, will go through all sorts of changes. It is called themes. ( Cheeying T04 Reg 10)

11.8. The melody of a piece also affects the texture of the music. (Diana Kaswadi T01 Reg 14)

11.8.1. A single melodic line gives out a monophonic texture. (Diana Kaswadi T01 Reg 14)

11.8.2. Two or more melodic lines give out a polyphonic texture. (Diana Kaswadi T01 Reg 14)

11.8.3. A main melody accompanied by chords give out a homophonic texture. (Diana Kaswadi T01 Reg 14)

11.8.4. Gives the piece of music a soul. (Shaf T01 Reg17)

11.9. Melody is structured by its length and intensity--like sentences in a spoken language. (Shaf T01 Reg17)

11.9.1. EXAMPLE: a phrase in music is a unit of meaning behind the larger part of the song in its entirety. LIKE the CADENCE(final ending to a musical section) or a CLIMAX(a high point of intensity) (Shaf T01 Reg17)

11.9.2. Many melodies are made up of shorter parts called phrases. (Yong Ling T03 Reg 19)

11.9.3. A resting place at the end of a phrase is called a cadence. (Yong Ling T03 Reg 19)

11.10. Melody is often the highest line in a musical composition. Melodies may suggest their own harmony or counterpoint. Melody is common to all musical cultures. (Jiatru T03 Reg 8)

11.11. A melody essentially forms the basic framework of any song. It is often divided into different phrases. (YanJiao T02 Reg 12)

11.12. Besides moving up or down by step or leap, a melody may simply repeat the same note. (Yong Ling T03 Reg 19)

11.13. Melody - This refers to the memorable tune created by playing a succession or series of pitches. (Hidayah, T01, 15)

12. Lyrics- might not be valid for instrumental. (Jessica T02 Reg 12)

12.1. Lyrics make a piece of music more meaningful and transform it into a song. The lyrics can be said to be the 'hair' of music; you can do with or w/o it, but once you have it, you better make it good. (Jessica T02 Reg 12)

12.2. Lyrics often contain political, social and economic themes as well as aesthetic elements, and so can connote messages which are culturally significant. These messages can either be explicit or implied through metaphor or symbolism. (Jiatru T03 Reg 8)

12.3. Often conveys messages without which the music might have trouble belaying emotions across. (Nissa, T04, reg 13)

13. Timbre - the quality or sound of a voice or instrument. Also referred to as the "Colour" or "Tone Colour". (Jessica T04 Reg 18)

13.1. The timbre can be adjusted by applying certain techniques while playing an instrument or using one's voice. (Jessica T04 Reg 18)

13.1.1. E.g. The timbre of a trumpet changes when a mute is inserted into the bell, or a voice can change its timbre by the way a performer manipulates the vocal apparatus, (e.g. the vocal chords, mouth and diaphragm). (Jessica T04 Reg 18)

13.2. Certain descriptive words may be used to express the effect of musical timbre or tone color. (Weiling T03 Reg 9)

13.2.1. For example: dark - brilliant; opaque - transparent; rich - mellow; fuzzy - clear; dull - sharp; complex - simple, etc. (Weiling T03 Reg 9)

13.3. Timbre is determined by the harmonic profile of the sound source. (Weiling T03 Reg 9)

13.4. Timbre of the song also refers to the music tone colour, and quality of a sound., independant of pitch and loudness. (Diana Kaswadi T01 Reg 14)

13.4.1. A single instrument can change the timbe of the song in many ways. The timbre of guitar music is different from the timbr of piano music. (Diana Kaswadi T01 Reg 14) For example, A glockenspiel gives a light tone colour, whereas a timpani, is more likely to give a darker a nd heavy colour. However, a timpani can also give out a brighter tone colour if it was to be played with lighter strokes. (Diana Kaswadi T01 Reg 14)

13.5. Timbre involves the differentiation and identification of the notations, that are played on different instruments at the same time. (YanJiao T02 Reg 12)

13.5.1. For example, a bass guitar and a lead guitar are always played together with the same notation. (YanJiao T02 Reg 12)

14. Dynamics - degree of loudness and softness in music. (Genevieve, T04 Reg 14)

14.1. For different loudness/softness, there are different performance directions used for the scores. (eg. to play something loud, the performance direction is F, which means forte). additionally, to play a piece of music with the piano, there are pedals for soft and loud sounds as well. (Miaoling T04 Reg 1)

14.1.1. Crescendo: A gradual increase in loudness. It often creates excitement, particularly when the pitch rises too. Decrescendo: a gradual decrease in loudness. It can be used to convey a sense of calm. When notating music, composers have traditionally used Italian words, and their abbreviations, to indicate dynamics. For extremes of softness and loudness, composers use ppp or pppp and fff or ffff. (Lynette T04 Reg 17)

14.2. A dynamic change or accent occurs when there is a change in how loud the instruments are played and /or how many instruments are heard. These dynamics create the mood of the music. (Wei Kim, T01, Reg 3)

14.3. Dynamics do not indicate specific volume levels, but are meant to be played with reference to the ensemble as a whole. (Jiatru T03 Reg 8)

14.4. The use of dynamics in music is very subjective and depends very much on the instrument and the context of the music. (Berliana T01 Reg 13)

14.5. Dynamics are abbreviations or symbols used to signify the degree of loudness or softness of a piece of music. It also indicates whether there is a change in volume. (Hidayah, T01, 15)

14.5.1. some examples of dynamiscs would be: pianissimo (pp), piano (p), fortissimo (ff), crescendo (<) - (Hidayah, T01, 15)

15. Rhythm - the flow of music through time. (Cindy T03 Reg 4)

15.1. Beats give music its regular rhythmic pattern. (Jessica T04 Reg 18)

15.1.1. Beats are grouped together in a measure; the notes and rests corresponds to a certain number of beats. (Jessica T04 Reg 18)

15.1.2. It is used as a way of counting time when playing a piece of music. (Jessica T04 Reg 18)

15.1.3. A beat is a regular pulsation in music where you can tap your foot or even clap.It is the pulsation that a conductor indicates by by waiving a baton. ( Tan May Lin T02 Reg 18)

15.1.4. New node

15.2. Tempo is the pace of the music; fast and slow etc. (Tammie T04 Reg 05)

15.2.1. Musicians and composers often use Italian name to describe different tempo. (Cindy T03 Reg 4) Adagio which means very slow and presto which means very fast. (Nur Hafizah T02 Reg 14)

15.2.2. Musicians use a metronome, a machine that make many different tempo, to practice a specific tempo at a time. (Cindy T03 Reg 4)

15.2.3. A fast tempo is often associated with a feeling of energy, drive, and excitement. A slow tempo often contributes to a solemn, lyrical, or calm mood. (Serene T03 Reg 21)

15.2.4. Tempo is an important ingredient in the mood of any example of music, whether it be aggressive or calming in effect with excitement generally revealed through a fast tempo while solemnity is always revealed through a slow tempo. (WeiLing T03 Reg 9)

15.3. Accent and Syncopation are the important aspect of rhythm is the way individual notes are stressed how they get special emphasis. (Cindy T03 Reg 4)

15.3.1. A note is emphasized most obviously by being played louder than the notes around it, that is, by receiving a dynamic accent. (Cindy T03 Reg 4)

15.3.2. When an accented note comes where we normally would not expect one, the effect is known as syncopation. (Cindy T03 Reg 4)

15.3.3. A syncopation also occurs when a weak beat is accented, as in 1[2]34 or 123[4]. (Cindy T03 Reg 4)

15.4. Regular pulsations of rhythm are called beats. (Shaf T01 Reg17)

16. Tempo: Tempo is the Italian word for “movement.” It indicates how slow or fast the piece should be played. (Debbie Chia T01 Reg 2)

16.1. Tempo can also be indicated through a set of words often used to describe the tempo at the beginning of a piece. These words represent the composer’s idea of how the music should feel. They depend on the genre of music, past performances of the music, the decision to divide the beat into faster notes, and the musician’s interpretation. (Debbie T01 Reg 2)

16.2. Tempo influences how music sounds and feels (Debbie T01 Reg 2)

16.2.1. If the tempo is slow, it could mean that the music is trying to convey a sad/ emotional feeling. (Suhaily, T03, 18) A gradual slowing down of tempo by ritardando (becoming slower). (Yong Ling T03 Reg 19)

16.2.2. If the tempo is fast, it could mean that the music is trying to convey a happy/ excited/ mystery & many more feelings. (Suhaily, T03, 18) A gradual quickening of tempo may be indicated by writing accelerando (becoming faster). (Yong Ling T03 Reg 19) An accelerando, especially when combined with a rise in pitch and volume, increases excitement. (Yong Ling T03 Reg 19)

16.3. Tempo is the speed of the beat, the basic pace of the music. (Yong Ling T03 Reg 19)

17. Harmony: Refers to the combination of notes (or chords) played together and the relationship between a series of chords. (Debbie T01 Reg 2)

17.1. It supports the melody and gives the music texture/mood. (Debbie T01 Reg 2)

17.1.1. Melody refers to the tune of a song or piece of music. It is created by playing a series of notes one after another. Harmony accompanies and supports the melody. It is created by playing a group of notes (either simultaneously or as broken chords) behind the melody thus giving it musical texture (Hidayah, T01, 15)

17.2. The same melody can sound different if you play it with another harmony (You can change how a piece of music sound by changing only it's harmony) (Debbie T01 Reg 2)

17.3. it introduces the impression of musical space.(Shaf T01 Reg17)

17.3.1. It is the element of music that pertains to the movement and relationship of intervals and chords.(Shaf T01 Reg17)

17.4. influences melody, and vice versa.(Shaf T01 Reg17)

17.4.1. It is the relation of notes to notes, and chords to chords as they are played simultaneously. Harmonic "patterns" are established from notes and chords in successive order. Melodic intervals are those that are linear and occur in sequence, while harmonic intervals are sounded at the same time.(Shaf T01 Reg17)

17.5. When you have more than one pitch surrounding at the same time in music, the result is harmony (Berliana T01 Reg 13)

17.6. Harmony is one of the basic elements of music, but it is not as basic as some other elements, such as rhythm and melody. (Berliana T01 Reg 13)

17.7. You can have music that is just rhythms, with no pitches at all. You can also have music that is just a single melody, or just a melody with rhythm accompaniment. (Berliana T01 Reg 13)

17.8. Refers to the way chords are constructed and how they follow each other. (Yong Ling T03 Reg 19)

17.9. heightens the meaning of text --> might serve to intensify the emotional meaning of the highly charged words in the lyrics for both the singer and the listener [Siti, T04, Reg. 16]

17.10. "Harmony" is derived from a Greek word that means "joint, concord, agreement" (Afina T02 Reg 16)

17.10.1. Parallel harmony --> different lines in the music rise and fall simultaneously (usually along with the melody). (Afina T02 Reg 16)

18. Instruments in the Orchestra: the instruments used in the orchestra are divided into 4 families according to the different types of sounds they produced(Cheeying T04 Reg 10)

18.1. The String Family: Violin, Viola, Cello, Harp and Double Bass (Cheeying, T04 Reg 10)

18.2. The Woodwind Family: Flute, Oboe, Clarinet & Bass Clarinet, Piccolo, English Horn, Basson, Saxophone and Contrabasson (Cheeying, T04 Reg 10)

18.3. The Brass Family: Trumpet, French Horn, Tuba, Cornet, trombone (Cheeying, T04, Reg 10)

18.4. Percussion Family: Xylophone, triangle, Timpani, etc (Cheeying, T04 Reg 10)

19. Texture-the way the melodic, rhythmic, and harmonic materials are combined in a composition. (Humaira T04 Reg08)

19.1. It determines the overall quality of a sound piece. (Humaira T04 Reg08)

19.2. refers to the density or thickness, and range, or width between the lowest & highest pitches (Humaira T04 Reg08)

19.2.1. distinguished according to the number of voices,or parts,and the relationship between the voices (Humaira T04 Reg08)

19.3. may be affected by the number and character of parts playing at once, the timbre of instruments or voices playing these parts and the harmony, tempo, and rhythms used (Humaira T04 Reg08)

19.4. It includes: homophony, polyphony, heterophony, and simultaneity(Siti T03 Reg 17)

19.5. homophony is a texture in which two or more parts move together in harmony, the relationship between them creating chords (siti T03 Reg 17)

19.5.1. Homophony: The voices move together in rhythm to create chordal harmony, there is harmony in the upper-most voice but all the voices move together as chords. Voices with similar rhythm. (Syahirah T02 Reg15)

19.6. polyphony is a texture consisting of two or more independent melodic voices, as opposed to music with just one voice (monophony) or music with one dominant melodic voice accompanied by chords (Siti T03 Reg 17)

19.6.1. Polyphonic = Many sounds. It consists of several melodies performed together at the same time, resulting in harmony. (Syahirah T02 Reg15)

19.7. Heterophony has only one melody but different variations of it are being sung or played at the same time. (Syahirah T02 Reg15)

20. In music, articulation refers to the direction or performance technique which affects the transition or continuity on single note or between multiple notes or sounds. Hema Niroshini T04 Reg 7

20.1. Woodwind and brass instruments generally articulate by tonguing, the use of the tongue to break the airflow into the instrument. Bowed stringed instruments use different bowing techniques to achieve different articulations. (Hema Niroshini T04 Reg 7)

20.2. In Jazz music, different styles of articulation are often use to express emotions and pit emphasis on different phases of the music. (Jeanne T04 Reg 11)

20.3. There are many different kinds of articulation, each having a different effect on how the note is played. Some articulation marks include the slur, phrase mark, staccato, staccatissimo, accent, sforzando, rinforzando, and legato. Each articulation is represented by a different symbol placed above or below the note (depending on its position on the stave). (Hema Niroshini T04 Reg 7)

20.3.1. Staccato is notated by a dot on TOP of the note while and accent is notated by a small arrow on the note. (Elaine Hoong T02 Reg 05)

20.3.2. Slurs / phrase marks are notated by an arched line over the notes which are to be played/sung smoothly. (Elaine Hoong T02 Reg 05)

20.4. New node

21. Form: The organization of musical elements in time. For example, in a musical composition, pitch, tone color, dynamics, rhythm, melody, and texture interact to produce a sense of shape and structure. (Andrea, T02, Reg 1)

21.1. It is important to have the organization of musical element in time as these elements normally tells the beholder the story that lies behind the music. (Suhaily, T03, 18)

21.2. If the elements are not arranged in time, the music that would be produced would not convey the meaning of the story. Hence, the beholder would not understand the meaning that lies behind the music.(Suhaily, T03, 18)

22. CHORDS: Groups of notes played together at the same time. For example, a C major chord contains the notes C, E, and G. When the notes C, E, and G are played at the same time, a C major chord is produced. There are many different types of chords and ways to play them. (Wei Kim, T01, Reg 3)

22.1. The most common chord in Western music is the triad. This is a combination of three tones, and may be built on any degree of the scale by combining every other note. For example, a triad can be built upon the do-mi-sol, the mi-sol-ti, and so on.

22.2. Types of Chords (Elaine Hoong T02 Reg 05)

22.2.1. Most common Major Major chords are characterized by bright and happy sound. It is defined by the triad of a the root note, major third and fifth note. (Elaine Hoong T02 Reg 05) Minor Minor chords are slightly dissonant and so sound dark and melancholic. Defined by the triad of root note, minor third and fifth note. (Elaine Hoong T02 Reg 05)

23. Tonality-A system of music, also known as the key of the music.This includes the major and minor keys. (Zi Jing T04 Reg 19)

23.1. The most commonly practice tonality in modern, western music composition is the major-minor tonality. (Zi Jing T04 Reg 19)

23.1.1. Tonality refers to just the major and minor scale types - scales whose elements are capable of maintaining a consistent set of functional relationships. The most important functional relationship is that of the tonic note and the tonic chord with the rest of the scale. (Wei Kim, T01, Reg 3) Tone colour create variety and contrast. When the same melody is played by one instrument and then by another, it takes on diferent expressive effects because of each instrument tone colour. On the contrary, a contrast in tone colour may be used to highlight a new melody. (Lynette T04 Reg 17)

23.2. Another word for tonality is KEY! (Dawn Sng T04, Reg.3)

23.3. Timbre - Also known as tone color; it refers to the quality of sound that distinguishes one's voice or instrument from another. Timbre may range anywhere from dull to lush, from dark to bright (Teo Zhi Xiong T04, Reg 21.)

24. Range- difference between the lowest and highest tones.(Shaf T01 Reg17)

24.1. Singers would categorise music range arrangements as low, medium or high= whether the notes focuses on those scale pitches.(Shaf T01 Reg17)

24.2. NARROW RANGES of arrangements in music suggests that the piece only centers around a few given notes.(Shaf T01 Reg17)

24.2.1. A piano range is over 7 octaves. (Lynette T04 Reg 17) When man and woman sing the same melody, they normally sing it an octave apart. (Lynette T04 Reg 17) Aural skills — the ability to identify musical patterns by ear, as opposed to by the reading of notation — form a key part of a musician's craft and are usually taught alongside music theory. Most aural skills courses train the perception of relative pitch (the ability to determine pitch in an established context) and rhythm. Sight-singing — the ability to sing unfamiliar music without assistance — is generally an important component of aural skills courses. Absolute pitch or perfect pitch describes the ability to recognise a particular audio frequency as a given musical note without any prior reference. iryanna t03 reg 15

24.3. WIDE RANGES in pieces of music is a piece where the song can take the musician from low to high pitches.(Shaf T01 Reg17)

25. Dynamics- abbreviations or symbols used to signify the degree of loudness or softness of a piece of music. (Natalie T04 Reg 12)

25.1. Also indicates whether there is a change in volume. (Natalie T04 Reg 12)

25.2. Dynamics also refers to the style of how each note is played. (Yan Jiao T02 Reg 12)

25.2.1. Staccato - cut short the sound of a note or a rhythmic pattern of note (Yan Jiao T02 Reg 12)

25.2.2. Legato - prolonging the sound of the notes so that there is no obvious gap in between the rhythmic note patterns. (Yan Jiao T02 Reg 12)

25.3. Loudness is related to the amplitude of the vibration that produces the sound. (Yong Ling T03 Reg 19)

26. Coda means “tail” in Italian, is the very last part of the music. This small section brings a large work of several movements to a satisfying conclusion. (Suhaily, T03, 18)

26.1. It is important to have coda in a music as this is the part where the sonata or symphony would come to a stop. (Suhaily, T03, 18)

26.2. If the coda is abrutly ended, the beholder would not understand the story that lies beneath the music. There would be no flow or linkage to the earlier music that was told. (Suhaily, T03, 18)

26.3. Therefore, all coda in music are important as it tells how the music/ story end. Whether it is a sad, angry & etc ending. (Suhaily, T03, 18)

27. Syncopation - The stressing of a normally unstressed beat in a bar or the failure to sound a tone on an accented beat. Syncopation is used on occasion in many musical styles, including classical music, but it is fundamental in such styles as ragtime and jazz. In the form of a back beat, syncopation is used in virtually all contemporary popular music. (Julienne Cheok, T02, Reg. No. 7)

27.1. One of the most obvious features of Western music, to be heard in most everything from Bach to blues, is a strong, steady beat that can easily be grouped evenly into measures. (Sharlyn Wong, T02, Reg. 17)

27.2. Each measure has the same number of beats, and you can hear the measures in the music because the first beat of the measure is the strongest. (Sharlyn Wong, T02, Reg. 17

27.3. Syncopation is one way to liven music up! (Sharlyn Wong, T02, Reg. 17)

27.4. The displacement of the accent in syncopation drives a piece of music forward. (You Se, T02, Reg 19)

27.5. It provides an element of surprise in classical music. (You Se, T02, Reg 19)

27.6. Syncopation means "cutting short" from the Greek word. (You Se, T02, Reg 19)

28. Interval - The relationship between the pitches of two notes (Pearllyn T03 Reg16)

28.1. In music theory, the name of any interval is further defined by using the terms perfect, major, minor, augmented, and diminished. (Pearllyn T03 Reg16)

28.2. Intervals may be described as "vertical" (or harmonic) if the two notes sound simultaneously or "linear" (or melodic), if the notes sound successively. (Shaun T03 Reg 10)

28.2.1. harmony is the use of simultaneous pitches (tones,notes), or chords.Harmony is often said to refer to the "vertical" aspect of music, as distinguished from melodic line, or the "horizontal" aspect (Shaun T03 Reg 10)

28.2.2. A melody (from Greek μελῳδία - melōidía, "singing, chanting"), also tune, voice, or line, is a linear succession of musical tones which is perceived as a single entity. In its most literal sense, a melody is a sequence of pitches and durations, while, more figuratively, the term has occasionally been extended to include successions of other musical elements such as tone color. (Shaun T03 Reg 10)

29. Scales - a group of notes that acts as a sort of skeletal structure for a piece of music (YanJiao T02 Reg 12)

29.1. The notes are C D E F G A B (Yan Jiao T02 Reg 12)

29.2. Scales are ordered in pitch or pitch class, with their ordering providing a measure of musical distance. Scales are divided, based on the intervals between the notes they contain, into categories including diatonic, major, minor, and others, with a specific group of notes thus being described as a C-major scale, D-minor scale, etc. (tricia, T03 reg 6)

30. Beat- most basic measurement of a piece of music (Yan Jiao T02 Reg 12)

30.1. Beat is also a regular, recurrent pulsation that divides music into equal units of time. (Yong Ling T03 Reg 19)

30.1.1. For e.g. When you clap your hands or tap your foot to music, you are responding to its beat. (Yong Ling T03 Reg 19)

30.2. A note may last a fraction of a beat, an entire beat, or more than a beat. (Yong Ling T03 Reg 19)

30.3. In music we find a repeated pattern of a strong beat plus one or more weaker beats. The organization of beats into regular groups is called meter. (Yong Ling T03 Reg 19)

30.4. A group containing a fixed number of beats is called a measure. (Yong Ling T03 Reg 19)

30.4.1. There are several types of meter, which are based on the number of beats in a measure. (Yong Ling T03 Reg 19)

30.4.2. When a measure has 2 beats, it is in duple meter; we count 12, 12 (Yong Ling T03 Reg 19)

30.4.3. The first, or stressed, beat of the measure is known as the downbeat. (Yong Ling T03 Reg 19)

30.4.4. Upbeat is an anaccented pulse preceding the downbeat, occurs before the first beat of a measure. (Edinna, T02, Reg13)

30.4.5. A measure with 3, 4, 5, 6 or 7 beats is known as triple meter, quadruple meter, quintuple meter, sextuple meter and septuple meter respectively. (Edinna, T02, Reg 13) For triple meter, we count 123, 123. For quadruple meter, we count 1234, 1234. (Edinna, T02, Reg 13)

31. Chords- a combination of three or more tones sounded at once. (Yong Ling T03 Reg 19)

31.1. Some chords have been considered stable and restful, others unstable and tense. (Yong Ling T03 Reg 19)

31.2. Dissonant chords are active and move music forward. (Yong Ling T03 Reg 19)

31.3. Some chords consist of three different tones; others have four, five, or even more. Depending on their makeup, chords sound simple or complex, calm or tense, bright or dark. (Yong Ling T03 Reg 19)

31.4. A chord may be classified by its inversion, the order in which its notes are stacked from lowest to highest. (Eesuan T03 Reg 11)

32. Key - Also known as tonality; a principle in music composition wherein at the end of the piece there is a feeling of completion by going back to the tonic. The tonic is the principal pitch of a composition. Simply put, key refers to the central note (i.e. key of C), scale (i.e. C scale) and chord (i.e. C Major triad) - (Hidayah T01 15)

32.1. major scale (Hidayah, T01, 15)

32.1.1. is the foundation from which all other scales are formed. A C major scale begins with a C and ends with a C. The same rule applies with the rest of the keys where a D Major Scale begins and ends with a D and so on. The notes on a major scale is numbered from 1 to 8, this signifies the intervals. (Hidayah, T01, 15)

32.2. minor scale (Hidayah, T01, 15)

32.2.1. Natural minor scale (Hidayah, TO1, 15)

32.2.2. Harmonic Minor scale (Hidayah, T01, 15)

32.2.3. Melodic Minor scale (Hidayah, T01, 15)

32.3. chromatic scale (Hidayah, T01, 15)

32.3.1. Means colour - The chromatic scale consists of 12 notes each a half step apart. It is from the chromatic scale that every other scale or chord in most Western music is derived. On the piano/keyboard when you play all the black and white keys of an octave in an ascending or descending order you are playing a chromatic scale. (Hidayah, T01, 15)

32.4. key signature (Hidayah, T01, 15)

32.4.1. Key signatures are the flats or sharps you see after the clef and before the time signature. The purpose of the key signature, aside from telling you what key to play in, is to avoid writing too many accidentals. For example, instead of writing Bb over and over again, the flat sign (b) is placed on the third line of the Treble Clef indicating that B's need to be flatted. (Hidayah, T01, 15)

32.4.2. To find the "relative minor" of a major key (the minor with the same key signature), go down a minor third or 3 semitones. To find the relative major of a minor key, go up a minor third. (Pearllyn T03 Reg16)

32.5. Minor & major - Different keys used in music depicts different mood of the music. (Tammie, T04, 05)

32.5.1. MAJOR KEY most of the times, music that are of lively and happy types are in major keys. It gives the listeners a light, happy and joyous feeling. (Tammie, T04, 05)

32.5.2. MINOR KEY pieces that are in minor keys gives an impression of a sad, down mood. It gives listeners a sentimental feeling and they tend to have much more subdued reactions to music in minor keys..Songs in minor keys are also often those that are of calm mood. It helps listeners to relax if they are too tense. (Tammie, T04, 05)

33. Beat and Meter (Hidayah, T01, 15)

33.1. Beats give music its regular rhythmic pattern. Beats are grouped together in a measure; the notes and rests corresponds to a certain number of beats. Meter refers to rhythmic patterns produced by grouping together strong and weak beats. Meter may be in duple (2 beats in a measure), triple (3 beats in a measure), quadruple (4 beats in a measure) and so on. (Hidayah, T01, 15)

33.1.1. 4/4 Meter - Also known as common time, this means there are 4 beats in a measure. (Lim Sarah, T03, Reg 12)

33.1.2. 3/4 Meter - Used mostly in classical and waltz music, this means there are three beats in a measure. (Lim Sarah, T03, Reg 12)

33.1.3. 6/8 Meter - Mostly used in classical music, this means there are 6 beats in a measure. In this type of meter the eighth notes are commonly used. (Lim Sarah, T03, Reg 12)

34. Tempo (Hidayah, TO1, 15)

34.1. The Italian word at the beginning of a music piece indicates how slow or fast the piece should be played. This is called the tempo which is effective throughout the duration of the music unless the composer indicates otherwise. (Hidayah, T01, 15)

34.1.1. Human perception perceives a range of tempo speed from about 30 to 240 beats per minute. (Joyce ng,T03 , 13)

34.1.2. Faster tempi (plural of tempo) are more energizing while slower tempi are more soothing. Tempo is an important ingredient in the mood of any example of music, whether it be aggressive or calming in effect with excitement generally revealed through a fast tempo while solemnity is always revealed through a slow tempo. (Joyce ng, T03,13)

34.1.3. In music terminology and notation tempo indications are most often expressed in the Italian language. The Italians were the first to develop written tempo and mood indications in music. Prior to 1600 tempo markings were practically unknown in music notation. One of the first composers to use modern tempo markings was the Italian composer Adriano Banchieri (1568-1634). (Joyce ng, T03, 13)

34.1.4. Some examples of Tempo are Adagio (play slowly) and Allegro (play fast and lively) (Yi Hang T01 Reg 9)

34.1.5. Tempo affects the mood of the piece. This helps to bring out the expression of the musical piece. Slow to fast, fast to slow, lively or not lively, it all depends on the tempo! (Genell Lee Hong Ying T02 Reg 10)

34.1.6. Some tempos changes that are expressed in italian, the accelerando: gradually becoming faster ritard, ritardando: gradually becoming slower rubato: a flexible tempo of slight accelerandos and ritardandos fermata: a note that is sustained longer than its notated value (Meyi.Ongsono, T01, reg 12)

35. Timbre: Quality of sound that distinguishes one voice/instrument from another (Halimah, T03, 14)

35.1. also known as tone colour (Halimah, T03, 14)

35.2. may range from dull to lush, from dark to bright (Halimah, T03, 14)

36. Tone colors: tone colours build a sense of continuity; it is easier to recognize the return of a melody when the same instruments play it each time. Specific instruments can reinforce a melodys emotional impact: the brilliant sound of a trumpet is suited to heroic or military tunes; the soothing tone color of a flute fits the mood of a calm melody. In fact, composers often create a melody with a particular instruments tone color in mind. (Ming Rui T01 Reg19)

36.1. "Tone colour refers to that aspect of sound that allows the listener to identify the sound source or combination of sound sources." (Eesuan T03 Reg 11)

36.2. Certain descriptive words may be used to express the effect of musical timbre or tone color such as: dark - brilliant; opaque - transparent; rich - mellow; fuzzy - clear; dull - sharp; complex - simple. (QingYi T02 Reg02)

37. Cultural- the different tunes and forms of music from people of multiple countries or cultures that are able to blend together. The different melodies that can be arranged to form a mix-up of music. For example, blending folksongs with african jazz would be mixing two different cultures of music together. (Alexandra T02 Reg 09)

37.1. The terms folk music, folk song, and folk dance are comparatively recent expressions. They are extensions of the term folk lore, which was coined in 1846 by the English antiquarian William Thoms to describe "the traditions, customs, and superstitions of the uncultured classes. (Joyce Ng, T03, 13)

37.2. The term is further derived from the German expression Volk, in the sense of "the people as a whole" as applied to popular and national music by Johann Gottfried Herder and the German Romantics over half a century earlier. (Joyce ng, T03, 13)

37.3. More so, this collaboration actually highlights the acceptance and understanding of diversity in a region whereby it is essentially a melting pot of different cultures. (Sylvia kwa, T01, 7)

37.4. In addition, as much as folk music for example, was largely popular at the specific time frame, more often than not, such trends in music are representative of the general lifestyle of the people at the time. For example, folk music is largely associated with laborers who indulge in it as an outlet to air their grievances or to express their views. Thus, music gives us insight to different lifestyles and also history (Sylvia Kwa, T01, 7)

38. Duration- the length of time a musical sound lasts. (Edinna, T02, Reg 13)

38.1. It includes: pulse, beat, rhythm, rhythmic density, meter, tempo (ibid) ( Josephine Bok T04 reg 9)

38.1.1. the pulse or tactus consists of beats[1]. The beat is a series of identical, yet distinct periodic (repeating) short-duration stimuli perceived as points in time[1] occurring at the mensural level. (Josephine Bok T04 reg 9)

39. Techniques that create musical form - repetition, contrast and variation are essential techniques in short tunes as well as in compositions lasting much longer. (Edinna, T02, Reg 13)

39.1. Musical form may be contrasted with content (the parts) or with surface (the detail), but there is no clear line dividing them. "Form covers the shape or structure of the work, content its substance, meaning, ideas, or expressive effects" (Middleton 1999). In many cases form depends on statement and restatement, unity and variety, contrast and connection. (Joyce ng, T03, 13)

39.2. The most basic levels of musical form concern (a) the arrangement of the [pulse] into accented and unaccented beats, the cells of a measure that, when harmonised, may give rise to the "briefest intelligible and self-existent musical unit" (Scholes 1977), called a motif or figure. (Joyce ng, T03, 13)

39.2.1. (b) The further organisation of such a measure, by repetition and variation, into a true musical phrase having a definite rhythm and duration that may be implied in melody and harmony, defined, for example, by a long final note and a breathing space. (Joyce ng, T03, 13)

40. Why study the basic elements of of music (Geraldine T02 Reg 03)

40.1. Essence of music: Elements remain the same no matter which style is used. (Geraldine T02 Reg 03)

40.2. They are the basis of all music, and when one studies the elements, he or she will be able to better understand the music and thus come to appreciate it more. (Tiffany Teo T02 Reg 20)

40.3. These basic elements are the structure and framework for which music is formed. Knowing these elements allow you to study, play and compose, reharmonize and work with others in a common language. (Victoria, T01, R21)

41. Timbre - It is a sound of which it does not cover the aspect of pitch, loudness, length. In other words, it is the fundamentals of a particular musical instrument's quality of sound. (Dawn Peh, 16, T01)

41.1. Moreover,timbre does not exclusively belongs to musical instruments only, it can be also be used in categorising human's voices. Human voices are also describe as mellow, clear, warm and flat etc. (Dawn Peh, 16, T01).

41.1.1. Hence, anything that could produce any type of sound (includes insects, or animals) has their own distinctive timbre sound (Dawn Peh, 16, T01).

42. Musical Instruments and Voice also part of an element of music (Yi Hang T01 Reg 9

42.1. Musical Instrument can be classified into percussions, woodwing, brass, strings and keyboards. (Yi Hang T01 Reg 9)

42.1.1. E.g of bowed string instruments from lower to higher pitch : Double bass, cello, viola, violin (Meyi.Ongsono, T01, reg 12)

42.1.2. Piano is one of the example of strucked string instrumnet (Meyi.Ongsono, T01, reg 12)

42.2. Voice is also considered as a musical instrument because everyone have different vocal range(alto, baritone, bass, mezzo-soprano, soprano, tenor) and voice type. (Yi Hang T01 Reg 9)

42.2.1. In principle, anything that produces sound can serve as a musical instrument. (Victoria, T01, R21)

42.2.2. Vocal music is another genre of music performed by one or more singers, with or without instrumental accompaniment. Vocal performances provide the main focus of the piece. Music without any non-vocal instrumental accompaniment is referred to as a capella. Vocal music is probably the oldest form of music, since it does not require any instrument besides the human voice. All musical cultures have some form of vocal music. (Victoria, T01, R21)

42.3. The musical instruments used in a piece of music sets it's musical style. (Victoria, T01, R21)

42.3.1. Classical music sounds the way it does in part because it uses violins, cellos, woodwinds. Rock sounds the way it does because it uses distorted electric guitars. (Victoria, T01, R21)

42.4. As technology advances, there are now electronic instruments and non electronic instruments. (Joel Chua,T02,REG06)

42.4.1. Examples of electronic instruments: Eigenharp,Percussa audiocubes Examples of non electronic instruments:Flute,trombone,clarinet (Joel chua,T02,Reg 06)

43. Fugue - Several parts (or voices) enter successively in imitation of each other. (You Se, T02, Reg 19)

43.1. Opening is called the subject. (You Se, T02, Reg 19)

43.2. Imitations are called the answer. (You Se, T02, Reg 19)

43.3. The sections in between are called episodes. (You Se, T02, Reg 19)

44. Dynamics- degrees of loudness or softness in music.(Yan Ting, T04, 6)

44.1. Loudness is related to the amplitude of the vibration that produces the sound. The harder a guitar string is plucked (the farther it moves from the fingerboard), the louder its sound. When instruments are played more loudly or more softly. (Kelly, T01, 1)

45. There are 6 major periods of music - Middle Ages, Renaissance, Baroque, Classical, Romantic, 20th Century. Musical styles vary from era to era. (Debra, T04, Reg 4)

46. properties of musical sounds (kalsheny valerie T03 7)

46.1. Duration is the length of time a note of sound lasts. (kalsheny valerie T03 7)

46.2. pitch is the relative highmess of loeness of a sound. (kalsheny valerie T03 7)

46.3. Dynamics is the degree of loudness and softness in a music. cresendo and decresendo. (kalsheny valerie T03 7)

46.4. Tone colour like the dynamics creates a variety and contrast in the music. it is described using words like bright, dark, brilliant, mellow, rich. (kalsheny valerie T03 7)

47. Analysis is the effort to describe and explain music. Analysis at once is a catch-all term describing the process of describing any portion of the music, as well as a specific field of formal analysis or the field of stylistic analysis. Formal analysis attempts to answer questions of hierarchy and form, and stylistic analysis attempts to describe the style of the piece. These two distinct sub-fields often coincide. Analysis of harmonic structures is typically presented through a roman numeral analysis. However, over the years, as music and the theory of music have both grown, a multitude of methods of analyzing music have presented themselves. Two very popular methods, Schenkerian analysis and Neo-Riemannian analysis, have dominated much of the field. Schenkerian analysis attempts to "reduce" music through layers of foreground, middleground, and, eventually and importantly, the background. Neo-Riemannian (or Transformational) analysis began as an extension of Hugo Riemann's theories of music, and then expanding Riemann's concepts of pitch and transformation into a mathematically rich language of analysis. While both theories originated as methods of analysis for tonal music, both have been extended to use in non-tonal music as well. (iryanna t03 reg 15)

47.1. New node

48. The Fibonacci Series (Lee McKing, T01, Reg 08)

48.1. It appears in aspects of art and music. (Lee McKing, T01, Reg 08)

48.2. The series is "0, 1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 13, 21, 34, ..." where two consecutive numbers add to form the next number. Can you see the link? (Lee McKing, T01, Reg 08)

48.3. Some or all musical instruments are built with this in mind. (Lee McKing, T01, Reg 08)

48.3.1. The piano keyboard of C to C has 13 keys, 8 white and 5 black, and split in groups of 3 and 2. (Lee McKing, T01, Reg 08)

48.3.2. The design of the violin is also based on the Fibonacci Series. (Lee McKing, T01, Reg 08)

48.3.3. I would like to upload images, but I am scared of copyright issues >.< ( Lee McKing, T01, Reg 08)