Cognitive and Linguistic Development

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Cognitive and Linguistic Development by Mind Map: Cognitive and Linguistic Development

1. Jean Piaget

1.1. Concerned with children, rather than all learners

1.2. Focuses on development rather than learning. It does not address learning of information or specific behaviors

1.3. Learning is a solitary experience. Knowledge is acquired through individual experiences.

1.4. Development precedes learning.

1.5. Learning is intrapersonal

1.6. Purpose of egocentric speech is purely self-centered focusing only on the child's desires (egocentrism).

1.7. Stages of development focuses more on qualitative differences

1.7.1. Four Stages of Development

1.7.1.1. Sensorimotor

1.7.1.1.1. Birth to about age 2

1.7.1.1.2. A period of rapid cognitive growth.

1.7.1.1.3. Conservation refers to the ability to determine that a certain quantity will remain the same despite adjustment of the container, shape, or apparent size.

1.7.1.1.4. Infant quickly builds direct knowledge of world around her through the senses.

1.7.1.1.5. Extreme egocentrism, where the child has no understanding of the world other than her own, current point of view.

1.7.1.1.6. Object Permanence (knowing that an object still exists, even if it is hidden) requires the ability to form schemata (a mental representation) and is still developing in the young infant. 

1.7.1.2. Preoperational

1.7.1.2.1. Approximately ages 2 to about 7

1.7.1.2.2. Children in this stage can mentally represent events and objects (the semiotic function), and engage in symbolic play. 

1.7.1.2.3. Behaviors become goal directed, progressing from concrete to abstract goals.

1.7.1.2.4. Egocentrism the child's inability to see a situation from another person's point of view.

1.7.1.3. Concrete Operational

1.7.1.3.1. Approximately ages 7 to about 11

1.7.1.3.2. Conservation is mastered

1.7.1.3.3. Can incorporate inductive reasoning, but experience difficulties with deductive reasioning.

1.7.1.3.4. Diminished egocentrism

1.7.1.4. Formal Operational

1.7.1.4.1. Our Target Teaching Population Adolescents

1.7.1.5. 21st Century Learning

1.7.1.5.1. Neo-Piagetian theory- rejects notion that a single series of stages characterizes children's overall development.

1.8. Explains the mechanisms and processes where the child develops into an individual who can reason and think

1.9. Children continually learn new things through assimilation and accommodation referred to as Equilibration.

1.9.1. Assimilation - fitting new info into existing schemas, often by distorting, transforming, and imposing meaning on the information

1.9.1.1. Ex: When my daughter was a toddler, she saw the ocean for the first time and said "pool." Her schema distorted the ocean for pool. I said "No, ocean." She said, "No, pool."

1.9.2. Accommodation-modifying, transforming, and reconstructing existing schemas.

1.9.2.1. Ex: My daughter went to the beach and experienced the ocean and realized it was different than a pool. She then learned "ocean."

1.9.3. Assimilation and Accommodation for Adolescent Learners

1.9.3.1. Instead of just presenting content, adolescents benefit from exploring an authentic problem. Solving the problem will lead the students into accommodating new content.

1.9.4. 21st Century Learning

1.9.4.1. The development of technological tools promote constructivist learning.

1.9.4.1.1. Online tools promote learning but students must learn evaluate the information and the source.

1.9.4.2. Adolescents often take online classes in place of traditional classes.

1.9.4.2.1. Online learning instruction must ensure prior knowledge is activated in order for the student to construct new information.

1.9.4.2.2. Problem based learning is conducive in an online environment thus promoting accommodation.

2. Lev Vygotsky

2.1. Stresses the fundamental role of social interaction in the development of cognition

2.2. Believed that community plays a role in the process of mean making

2.3. Learning precedes development.

2.4. Learning is interpersonal.

2.5. True education is not the mere learning of specific knowledge and skills, it is the development of children's learning abilities.

2.6. Purpose of egocentric speech is self-directed regulation and thinking about issues (problem-solving).

2.7. Important Principles:

2.7.1. More Knowledgeable Other

2.7.1.1. When someone has a better understanding or a higher ability level than the learner

2.7.1.2. Can be an adult or more highly skilled peer.

2.7.1.3. Mediated learning experience- the adult encourages the child/teen to think about a phenomenon or event in a particular way

2.7.2. Zone of Proximal Development

2.7.2.1. Difference between what a child can achieve independently and what a child can achieve with encouragment

2.7.2.2. The "zone" refers to a space where optimal learning can occur through scaffolding and is sometimes referred to as "the sweet spot". It does not include what the child already knows and it does not include what they are not yet "ready" for.

2.7.3. 21st Century Learning

2.7.3.1. Collaborative learning is instrumental in learning. Teachers can group students of different abilities or different cultural backgrounds to promote learning.

2.7.3.1.1. Classrooms are not filled with rows of desks but rather groups of desks or tables even to encourage collaborative learning.

2.7.3.2. Guided participation in adult activities

2.7.3.2.1. When I worked at a wilderness camp with adjudicated youth, teens were required to plan, budget and cook their group meals.

3. Cognitive Development is the construction of thinking and mental processes such as problem solving, memory and critical and logical thoughts.

4. Similarities of Vygotsky and Piaget

4.1. Both suggested children acquire increasing complex thinking processes with age and experience.

4.2. Both argued for the importance of challenge- in the form of puzzling new information or in form of tasks that can only be completed with assistance.

4.3. Both suggest, at any given point in development, children are cognitively ready for some experiences but not for others.

4.4. Both agree that children's experiences matter in their cognitive development.

4.5. Both were constructivist theorists.

4.6. Both believed that children's egocentric speech was an important part of their cognitive development (although they disagreed on the purpose).

5. Vgotsky and Piaget Applications for Adolescent Learners

5.1. Piaget

5.1.1. Encourage teens to discuss their visions for a better world but point out instances when their ideals are unrealistic.

5.1.1.1. For example: If you were teaching material about the Civil War, the class could join in a discussion about other issues which have divided our country

5.1.2. Teachers should try to teach broad concepts, rather than just facts

5.1.3. Students should also be encouraged to explain how they solved a problem.

5.1.3.1. Inquiry Based Learning

5.1.3.2. Individuals at this stage are able to control variables systematically, test hypotheses, and generalize results to future occurrences.

5.1.4. Student learning should alternate between two states: Equilibrium (I understand) and Disequilibrium (I don't understand).

5.1.4.1. A teacher gives students appropriate lengths of time to understand material, but learning is not stagnant. When a new skill is acquired (equilibrium), the teacher presents a problem/challenge to further inquiry (disequilibrium) and so on.

5.2. Vgotsky

5.2.1. Provide scaffolding

5.2.1.1. In a high school laboratory science class, a teacher might provide scaffolding by first giving students detailed guides to carrying out experiments, then giving them brief outlines that they might use to structure experiments, and finally asking them to set up experiments entirely on their own.

5.2.1.2. When reading a difficult textbook, the teacher might provide scaffolding.

5.2.1.2.1. Activate prior knowledge

5.2.1.2.2. Set a purpose for reading

5.2.1.2.3. Review text structure

5.2.1.2.4. Review difficult vocabulary

5.2.1.2.5. Have students read in pairs to discuss what they have read

5.2.1.3. Volunteers from the community are used to enhance peer-to-peer and teacher-student scaffolding.

5.2.2. Cooperative learning activities can be planned with groups of teens at different levels who can help each other learn.

5.2.3. After cooperative learning takes place, students are responsible for transferring knowledge to their peers through planning and carrying out presentations covering lessons learned.

6. Differences of Vygotsky and Piaget

6.1. Vygotsky assumes cognitive development across cultures, whereas Piaget states cognitive development is mostly universal across cultures.

6.2. Vygotsky states cognitive development stems from social situations within the zone of proximal development. Piaget states cognitive development stems largely from independent explorations where children construct knowledge of their own

6.3. Vygotsky places more or different emphasis on the role of language in cognitive development.

6.4. According to Piaget, language depends on thought for its development (i.e. thought comes before language). For Vygotsky, thought and language are initially separate from the beginning of life, and merge later own therefore producing inner speech.