My Foundation of Education

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My Foundation of Education by Mind Map: My Foundation of Education

1. Politics of Education

1.1. Conservative

1.1.1. Traditionalist

1.1.2. Argue that individuals rise or fall on their own intelligence, hard work, and initiative. Achievement is based on hard work.

1.1.3. Believe in back to basics, a return to traditional curriculum, and accountability for students and schools.

1.1.4. Believe educational problems stem from a decline of standards, decline of cultural literacy, decline of values, and a decline of authority.

1.1.5. Believe the role of schools is to provide necessary educational training to ensure that hard working individuals receive the tools they need for success.

1.1.6. Conservative Schooling Ideology

1.1.7. * School is a preparation for life.

1.1.8. * Learners are passive absorbers of information and authority.

1.1.9. * Teachers are sources of information and authority.

1.1.10. * Decision-making is centrally based and administratively delivered.

1.1.11. * Learning is linear, with factual accumulation and skill mastery.

1.1.12. * Knowledge is absorbed through lectures, worksheets, and texts.

1.1.13. * Disciplines, particularly language and math, are separated.

1.1.14. * Assessment is norm-referenced, external, and graded.

1.1.15. * Success is competitively based, derived from recall and memory, and specific to a time/place.

1.1.16. * Intelligence is a measure of linguistic and logical/mathematical abilities.

1.2. Liberal

1.2.1. Progressive/Liberal Schooling Ideology

1.2.2. * School is a part of life.

1.2.3. * Learners are active participants, problem solvers, and planners.

1.2.4. * Teachers are facilitators, guides who foster thinking.

1.2.5. * Decision-making is shared by all constituent groups.

1.2.6. * Learning is spiral, with depth and breadth as goals.

1.2.7. * Knowledge is constructed through play, direct experience, and social interaction.

1.2.8. * Instruction is related to central questions and inquiry, often generated by the children.

1.2.9. * Disciplines are integrated as children make connections.

1.2.10. * Assessment is benchmarked, has many forms, and is progress-oriented.

1.2.11. * Intelligence is recognized as varied, includes the arts, and is measured in real-life problem-solving.

1.3. Radical

1.4. Neo-Liberal

1.5. The Purpose of Education

1.5.1. Schools reinforce larger cultural messages about gender, including the idea that gender is an essential characteristic for organizing social life.

1.5.2. The specific purposes of education are political, social, economic and intellectual. The Political purpose of education is to instill patriotism, prepare citizens who will assimilate diverse cultural groups into a common political order and to teach children the basic laws of society The Social purpose of education is to help solve perceived problems in society. The Economic purpose of education is to prepare students for occupational roles and to select, train and allocate individuals into the division of labor. The Intellectual purpose of school is to teach basic cognitive skills such as reading, writing and mathematics.

2. Notes

3. Equality of Opportunity

3.1. Basic Forms of Stratification

3.1.1. Caste Stratification – occurs in agrarian societies where social level is defined in terms of some strict criteria such as race or religion.

3.1.2. Estate Stratification – occurs agrarian in societies where social level is defined in terms of the hierarchy of family worth.

3.1.3. Class Stratification – occurs in industrial societies that define social level in terms of a hierarchy of differential achievement by individuals, especially in economic pursuits.

3.2. The Coleman Report

3.2.1. The 1966 Coleman Report —titled "Equality of Educational Opportunity" fueled debate about academic achievement and the effect of schools on student achievement. The report was commonly presented as evidence that school funding has little effect on student achievement. The Coleman Report indicated that student background and socioeconomic status were more important in determining educational outcomes of a student than the school itself. coleman report

3.3. America is not yet the country it strives to be—a place where all who are willing to work hard can get ahead, join a thriving middle class, and lead fulfilling lives. Our country derives much of its strength from its core value as a land of opportunity. But, today, economic mobility is actually greater in a number of other countries. Despite this challenge, we know how to work toward the solution: access to a world-class education can help to ensure that all children in this country with dreams and determination can reach their potential and succeed.

3.4. Progress for Students

3.4.1. • Our high school dropout rate is at a historic low, following steady decreases. The greatest progress has been among minorities.

3.4.2. • More students than ever are being taught to college- and career-ready standards, and high-quality preschool and higher education are within reach for more families.

3.4.3. • Our high school graduation rate is the highest ever, at 82 percent, with improvements for students with disabilities, English learners, and other traditionally underserved students.

3.4.4. • College continues to be the best investment people can make in their futures. College enrollment for black and Hispanic students is up by more than a million since 2008.

4. History of the US Education

4.1. School Funding

4.1.1. 1785 and 1787 Land Ordinance Act, Northwest Ordinance

4.1.2. Current school funding comes from state funds, local sales tax, property tax, and to a small extent the federal government. Thomas Jefferson believed that school should be free to students in order to teach literacy skills. He asserted that literacy was the way in which we would safeguard democracy.

4.2. 1821 first public high school opens in Boston


4.4. 1896 PLESSY v. Ferguson

4.4.1. "Separate but equal" ruling ruled that schools should stay segregated.

4.5. Progressive Education: John Dewey's Laboratory School based on scientific inquiry.

4.6. 1954 Brown v. Board of Education

4.6.1. Repealed Plessy v. Ferguson ruling

4.6.2. Court ruling was the basis for desegregation in schools. Court ruling was the starting point of the civil rights movement.

4.7. 1972 Title IX- Prohibited discrimination on the basis of sex

4.8. 1975 Individuals with Disabilities Education Act is passed

4.8.1. Ensures that all students have access to equal educational opportunities regardless of disabilities.

4.9. 1983 A Nation at Risk

4.10. A study that concluded that schools in the United States were falling behind other countries in subjects such as math and reading.

4.11. 2002 No Child Left Behind

4.11.1. Standardized Testing

4.11.2. Increased Accountability

4.11.3. Adequate Yearly Progress

5. Sociological Perspectives

5.1. Functional Theories

5.1.1. Functional sociologists assess the interdependence of the social system; viewing society as a machine where one part works with another to make society work.

5.2. Interactional Theories

5.2.1. Interactional sociologists take a up close view of the interactions between students/ students and teachers/ teachers.

5.3. Conflict Theories

5.3.1. Conflict sociologists assert that society is not held together by shared values alone, but on the ability of dominant groups to impose their will on subordinate groups (ie. the glue of society is economic, cultural, and political).

5.4. 4 Effects of Schooling

5.4.1. Knowledge: Problem solving skills and understanding how one fits into society.

5.4.2. Education: Becoming a well educated individual with the ability to add intellectual value to society.

5.4.3. Employment: Students are prepared for jobs to be productive members of society.

5.4.4. Mobility: Increased knowledge and job skills provide students with the opportunity for upward social mobility (ie. move from lower socioeconomic statue to higher socioeconomic statues).

5.4.5. * Instruction is linear and largely based on correct answers.

5.5. Sociological Inquiry

5.5.1. The purpose of sociological inquiry is to focus on the influence of schooling on equity and opportunity for students. Defacto Segregation: For example, often the concentration of African- Americans in certain neighborhoods produces neighborhood schools that are predominantly black, or segregated in fact ( de facto ), although not by law ( de jure ) . Tracking: In a tracking system, the entire school population is assigned to classes according to whether the students' overall achievement is above average, normal, or below average. Gender: Schools reinforce larger cultural messages about gender, including the idea that gender is an essential characteristic for organizing social life.

6. Educational Inequality

6.1. Explanations of Unequal Educational Achievement

6.1.1. The Functionalist Vision of a “just society” is one where individual talent and hard work are based on universal principles of evaluation. Functionalists expect that the process of schooling will produce unequal results, but that the results should be due to individual differences between students, not on group differences.

6.1.2. Conflict theorists believe that the role of schooling is to reproduce instead of eliminate inequality (this assertion is consistent with data that shows educational outcomes that are strongly linked to family background).

6.1.3. Interactionist theory suggests that we must understand how people within institutions such as families or schools interact on a daily basis in order to comprehend the factors explaining academic success or failure.

6.2. Explaining Race, Class, and Gender Based Inequalities

6.2.1. Student Centered or Extra-School explanations of inequalities focus on factors outside of school such as family, the community, culture, peer groups and the individual student.

6.2.2. School Centered or Within-School explanations of inequalities focus on factors within the school such as the teachers, teaching methods, curriculum, ability grouping, school climate and teacher expectations.

6.3. 3 Controversial Perspectives: Student Centered Explanations

6.3.1. Genetic or Biological Differences Theory

6.3.2. Cultural Deprivation Theories Students begin school behind due to lack of books, cultural experiences, etc.

6.3.3. Cultural Difference Theories First theory asserts that African American children do less well in school because they adapt to their oppressed position in the class structure. Second theory views working class and non-white students as resisting the dominant culture of schools. Third theory asserts that Asian Americans possess family values that place great emphasis on educational achievement along with high expectations for children.

6.4. School Centered Explanations of Educational Inequality

6.4.1. School Financing

6.4.2. School Climate

6.4.3. Pedagogic Practices

6.4.4. Effective versus Ineffective Schools Characteristics of Effective Schools High expectations for students by teachers and administrators. Strong, effective leadership by school administration. Accountability processes for both students and teachers. Close monitoring of student learning. A high degree of instructional time on task. Flexibility for teachers to adapt to new situations and solve problems.

7. Philosophy of Education

7.1. Realism

7.1.1. Essentialism Back to the Basics: focus on Reading, Writing and Math. Teacher led classroom with direct instruction. Theorists: E.D. Hirsch & William Bagley Traditional approach to education.

7.1.2. Syllogism - a kind of logical argument that applies deductive reasoning. Tabula rasa – the theory that children were born as "blank slates", beginning their lives morally neutral. Empirical point of view - based on observation or experience.

7.2. Dialectical thinking refers to the ability to view issues from multiple perspectives; it is a form of analytical reasoning that pursues knowledge and truth.

7.3. Idealism

7.3.1. Perennialism Study classic literature such as The Iliad and The Odyssey rather than using textbooks. Teacher led classroom. Theorists Robert Hutchins and Mortimer Adler

7.4. Pragmatism

7.4.1. Progressivism Learning by doing. Based on experimentation and scientific inquiry. Group work and collaborative learning activities. Student led classroom. Theorists John Dewey and Nel Noddings Integrated study of academic subjects based on student needs and experiences.

7.4.2. Pragmatism is a philosophical tradition that began in the United States around 1870. Pragmatists consider thought an instrument or tool for prediction, problem solving and action, not merely for rote memorization or description of topics.

7.5. Neo-Marxism

7.5.1. Social Reconstructionism Integrated study of academic subjects around socially meaningful actions. Instruction based on authentic learning activities that both instruct students and help society. Creates intelligent problem solvers in order to better society. Student led classroom. Theorists George S. Counts and Paulo Friere

7.6. Existentialist

7.6.1. Each student determines the pace and direction of their own learning. Students choose their own medium, such as art, music, or poetry to reflect their learning and evaluate/grade their own performance. Based on learning about oneself moreso than traditional academic subjects.

7.6.2. Student led classroom.

7.6.3. Theorists Maxine Greene and A.S. Neill.

8. Curriculum and Pedagogy

8.1. Traditional Viewpoint of Curriculum

8.1.1. Views the curriculum as a body of knowledge and ways this knowledge may be designed, taught, and assessed. Current approaches to curriculum focus on designing curriculum around goals and objectives, and to assess it in terms of student learning. Traditions in Pedagogic Practices

8.2. 4 Types of Curriculum

8.2.1. Developmentalist Curriculum Based on progressive educational practices. Focuses on the needs and interests of each individual child.

8.2.2. Social Meliorist Curriculum Based on the social reconstructionist theory that schools should work to solve fundamental social problems.

8.2.3. Social Efficiency Curriculum Based on the idea that curriculum must directly and specifically prepare students for tasks in the adult world. Based on idealism/perennialism philosophies of education.

8.3. Sociology of Curriculum

8.3.1. Functionalist Theory Purports that the role of curriculum is to give students the knowledge, language, and values to ensure social stability.

8.3.2. Conflict Theory Theorists do not believe that schools teach liberal values such as tolerance and respect (hidden curriculum).

8.4. Curriculum includes:

8.4.1. * Topics taught in schools.

8.4.2. * Academic content.

8.4.3. * A program of studies.

8.4.4. * A sequence of courses.

8.4.5. * A series of experiences undergone by learners in a school.

8.5. Curriculum includes everything that goes on within the school, including extra-class activities, guidance, and interpersonal relationships.

9. Schools as Organizations

9.1. Schools are powerful organizations that profoundly affect the lives of those children and adults who come in contact with them.

9.1.1. To understand education, one must look beyond the classroom itself and the interaction between teachers and students to the larger world where different interest groups compete with each other in terms of ideology, finances, and power.

9.2. Essential Questions:

9.2.1. How can schools be distinguished organizationally, and why are some schools more effective learning environments than others?

9.2.2. How do some schools create such powerful organizational cultures that deeply influence one’s life and one’s approach to learning?

9.3. School processes refer to the way in which school cultures are created and maintained.

9.4. Decentralized school system – each state maintains its autonomy, authority, and responsibility regarding education. The federal government has very little input regarding individual schools.

9.5. Sociologist Max Weber asserted that schools are social organizations that are bureaucratic in nature.

9.6. Willard Waller, an educational sociologist, asserted that schools are separate social organizations due to:

9.6.1. Schools have a definite population. Schools have a clearly defined political structure. Schools are permeated with a “we” ideal rather than a “me” ideal.

9.6.2. Schools represent a central network of social relationships. Schools each have a definite culture that is specific to the individual school.

9.7. The No Child Left Behind Act mandates that teachers must be highly qualified through meeting 3 qualifications:

9.7.1. Hold a college degree.

9.7.2. Full certification in field of study.

9.7.3. Demonstrable knowledge of academic content in the field of study/certification.