Human Biology

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Human Biology by Mind Map: Human Biology

1. scientific inquiry

1.1. ask a question

1.1.1. Begins with problem.

1.1.2. Scientists try to find solution for that problem

1.2. Do background research

1.2.1. review of books

1.2.2. scientific journals

1.2.3. Google/Internet

1.3. construct hypothesis

1.3.1. tentative proposal made to explain certain observations

1.3.2. Often make a prediction based on hypothesis (using if-then reasoning)

1.3.3. a statement

1.3.4. short

1.3.5. single idea that can be tested

1.3.6. links 2 variables and states relationship between them

1.4. Test with an experiment

1.4.1. Prediction based on hypothesis

1.4.2. Variable

1.4.2.1. independant variable

1.4.2.1.1. factor that is being investigated

1.4.2.1.2. deliberately changed to determine its effect

1.4.2.2. dependant variable

1.4.2.2.1. observation or results of the changes made by independant variable

1.4.2.3. controlled variable

1.4.2.3.1. factors kept the same for both control and experimental groups

1.4.2.4. uncontrolled variable

1.4.2.4.1. variables that are not kept the same for control and experimental groups

1.4.2.4.2. overlooked or impossible to control

1.4.3. Repitition

1.4.3.1. Doing same experiment many times

1.4.3.2. Performing experiments on larger sample size

1.4.3.3. Test reliability

1.4.4. Placebos

1.4.4.1. inactive substance that looks like real medications

1.4.4.2. In forms of pills, tablets, injections, mock-surgery

1.4.4.3. One group (control group) gets placebos which looks identical

1.4.4.4. if difference between 2 groups clear

1.4.4.4.1. drug is effective

1.5. Analyse results and draw conclusion

1.5.1. data collected in forms of

1.5.1.1. table

1.5.1.1.1. organised

1.5.1.2. graphs

1.5.1.2.1. easy to see trends

1.5.1.3. bar or column graphs/histograms

1.5.1.3.1. when there are many categories

1.5.1.4. quantitative data

1.5.1.4.1. can be measured

1.5.1.4.2. length, height, area, volume, weight

1.5.1.5. qualitative data

1.5.1.5.1. observed, not measured

1.5.1.5.2. colours, textures, smells tastes

1.5.1.5.3. appearance, beauty

1.6. Conclude hypothesis

1.6.1. TRUE

1.6.2. FALSE

1.7. Report results for peer review

2. Microscopes

2.1. Calculating magnification

2.1.1. multiply magnification of objective lens with magnification of ocular lens

2.2. FOV

2.2.1. diameter of circle view when looking down a microscope

2.2.2. higher the magnification, smaller the FOV

2.2.3. calculate intial FOV

2.2.3.1. use tiny ruler

2.2.3.2. grid slide

2.3. Diagram of microscope

3. Cells

3.1. organelles

3.1.1. specialised structure, surrounded by its own membrane and perform specific function

3.1.2. examples

3.1.2.1. nucleus

3.1.2.2. Endoplasmic Reticulum

3.1.2.3. Chloroplast

3.1.2.4. Centrioles

3.1.2.5. Mitochondria

3.1.2.6. Vacuoles

3.1.2.7. Lysosome

3.1.2.8. Ribosome

3.1.2.9. Golgi Apparatus

3.2. non-organelles

3.2.1. cell membrane

3.2.2. Cytoplasm

3.2.3. cell wall

3.2.4. cytoskeleton

3.2.4.1. framework of protein fibres that gives cell its shape

3.2.4.2. assists in cell movement

3.2.4.3. consists of

3.2.4.3.1. microtubules

3.2.4.3.2. microfilaments

3.3. multi-cellular organism

3.3.1. can feed, excrete

3.3.2. repsire

3.3.3. respond to stimuli

3.3.4. reporudce, grow

3.4. Unicellular orgainsm

3.4.1. consists of one single cell

3.5. inclusions

3.5.1. chemical substances that are not part of the cell structure but found in cytoplasm

3.5.2. red pigment = haemoglobin

3.5.3. melanin pigment in skin, hair

3.6. cells are small

3.6.1. small cell has larger SA to volume ratio than large cell

3.6.1.1. larger SA = easier for particles to enter and leave celll

3.6.1.2. small volume = easier for organelles to reach one place from the other

4. Enzymes

4.1. metabolism

4.1.1. all chemical reactions that take place in cell

4.1.2. types

4.1.2.1. catabolism

4.1.2.1.1. reactions in which large molecules broken down into smaller ones

4.1.2.1.2. releases energy

4.1.2.2. anabolism

4.1.2.2.1. small molecules built into larger molecules

4.1.2.2.2. uses energy

4.2. importance

4.2.1. allow chem reactions to take place at body temp

4.2.2. without them- reaction proceed to slow

4.3. Specific

4.3.1. only combine with one particular subtrate

4.3.1.1. one specific chem reaction

4.4. factors

4.4.1. termperature

4.4.1.1. optimum temp

4.4.1.1.1. enzyme works best and effiicient at temp 30-35

4.4.2. Enzyme concentration

4.4.2.1. more concentrate = fast rate of chem reaction

4.4.3. Subtrate concentration

4.4.3.1. more concentrate= faster rate

4.4.4. Products of reaction must be constantly removed

4.4.4.1. or rate of reaction will slow

4.4.4.1.1. harder for subtrate mol to be in contact with enzyme mol

4.4.5. PH levels

4.4.5.1. each enzyme has optimum PH which help make more efficient

4.4.6. presence of co- factors/ co-enzymes

4.4.6.1. co-factors

4.4.6.1.1. change shape of active site so enzyme can combine with subtrate

4.4.6.1.2. certain ion

4.4.6.2. co-enzyme

4.4.6.2.1. non-protein organic molecules

4.4.6.3. most enzyme require co-factor before catalysing reaction

4.4.7. enzyme inhibitors

4.4.7.1. substances slow or stop enzyme activity

4.4.7.2. control reactions = produce products in specific amounts

4.4.7.3. penicillin inhibits enzyme in bacteria that is involved in construction of cell wall

5. Cellular Respiration

5.1. energy goes to..

5.1.1. 60%

5.1.1.1. heat to keep body at const. temp. (homeostasis)

5.1.2. 40%

5.1.2.1. used to form ATP (adenosine triphosphate)

5.1.2.1.1. energy required for...

5.1.2.1.2. formation of ATP

5.2. C₆H₁₂O₆ + 6O₂ → 6CO₂ + 6H₂O + energy

5.3. 20 seperate reactions in series needed (with help of enzymnes) to control release of energy

5.4. 2 types

5.4.1. anerobic

5.4.1.1. occurs in cytoplasm

5.4.1.1.1. enzymes for anaerobic r.

5.4.1.2. breakdown of glucose without oxygen

5.4.1.3. no oxygen available = 2 mol of pyruvic acid = 2 lactic acids

5.4.1.4. during vigorous exercising, oxygen unable to supply enough O2 to energy demands of contractin muscles ,= anaerobic r. supplies extra energy

5.4.1.4.1. result - accumulation of lactic acids in muscles (muscle pain)

5.4.1.5. lactic acid then taken by blood to liver = combine with O2 to form glucose then glycolygen

5.4.2. aerobic

5.4.2.1. occurs in mitochondria

5.4.2.2. inner membrane of mitochondria has enzymes needed for 20 reactions to breakdown glucose in cellular respiration

5.4.2.2.1. inner membrane of mitochondria is folded = karge SA for reaction to take place

5.4.2.3. pyruvic acids = broken down to CO2 and H20

5.4.2.3.1. enzymes in mitochondria = 2 more series of reactions to occur

6. Tissues

6.1. level of structural organisation

6.1.1. cell - tissues - organs - system - organism

6.2. a group of cells that are simillar in structure that work together to carry out a specific task

6.3. 4 types

6.3.1. epithelial tissue

6.3.1.1. covering or lining tissue

6.3.1.2. closely joined together

6.3.1.3. vary in shape

6.3.1.4. outer layer of skin

6.3.1.5. covering and inner lining of heart

6.3.1.6. kidneys, heart, stomach, hollow organs made up of epithelium

6.3.2. connective

6.3.2.1. provides support for body

6.3.2.2. holds all body parts together

6.3.2.3. cells not close together, separated by matrix

6.3.2.3.1. large amounts of material that is not made up of cells

6.3.2.4. bone, cartilage, tendons, ligaments, blood

6.3.3. muscular

6.3.3.1. cells are long and thin = muscle fibres

6.3.3.2. 3 types

6.3.3.2.1. skeletal

6.3.3.2.2. involuntary

6.3.3.2.3. cardiac

6.3.4. nervous

6.3.4.1. made up of specialised nerve cells (neurons)

6.3.4.2. neurons consists of long projections from the body of the cell

6.3.4.3. when neuron stimulated = messages carried along these projections from one part of the body to the other

6.3.4.4. nervous tissue found in brain, spinal cord, nerves

7. cell transport

7.1. 2 types of cell transport

7.1.1. Passive transport

7.1.1.1. cell does not use energy

7.1.1.2. Examples

7.1.1.2.1. Diffusion

7.1.1.2.2. Osmosis

7.1.1.2.3. carrier mediated transport- Facilitated Diffusion

7.1.2. Active transport

7.1.2.1. Uses energy

7.1.2.2. Examples

7.1.2.2.1. carrier mediated transport- Protein pumps

7.1.2.2.2. Vesicular transport

7.2. cell membrane

7.2.1. Plasma membrane

7.2.1.1. double layer of phospholipids

7.2.1.2. proteins floating in this layer

7.2.1.3. function

7.2.1.3.1. control entry and exit

7.2.1.3.2. seperate cell from neighbouring cells

7.3. homeostasis

7.3.1. body systems work together to make sure that cellular environment is kept constant

7.4. fluid mosaic model

7.4.1. cell membrane structure

7.4.2. 'fluid' = molecules that make up model are constantly changing position

7.4.3. 'mosaic' = all different kinds of molecules

8. circulatory system

8.1. body's main internal transport system

8.2. link between cells inside body and environment outside body

8.3. blood

8.3.1. transport link between all cells in body

8.3.2. functions

8.3.2.1. transport oxygen and nutrients to cells

8.3.2.2. transport CO2 and other wastes products away from cells

8.3.2.3. maintain PH of body fluids

8.3.2.4. maintain body temp = distribute heat

8.3.2.5. maintain water content, ion concentration of body fluid

8.3.2.6. protect against disease-causing micro-organisms

8.3.2.7. clotting when vessels damaged

8.3.3. consists of

8.3.3.1. 55% plasma (liquid)

8.3.3.1.1. 91% water

8.3.3.1.2. rest made up of dissolved substances (nutrients, ions, gases, hormones, proteins, wastes

8.3.3.2. 45% formed elements (non-liquid), (cell and cell fragments)

8.3.3.2.1. white blood cells (leucocytes)

8.3.3.2.2. red blood cells (erythrocytes)

8.3.3.2.3. platelets (thrombocytes)

8.4. special organs needed to extract requirements from environment

8.4.1. respiratory system

8.4.1.1. absorb oxygen

8.4.2. digestive system

8.4.2.1. absorb protein

8.5. Other organs pass waste from body to environment

8.5.1. respiratory system

8.5.1.1. excretes CO2

8.5.2. digestive system

8.5.2.1. kidneys excrete wastes

9. DNA

9.1. DNA= deoxyribonucleic acid

9.2. molecule strucuture

9.2.1. in form of long strands

9.2.1.1. length 2-3m

9.2.1.2. width 1/2000000th of mm

9.2.2. long mol can fit in small nucleus space

9.2.2.1. DNA strand coiled around histones

9.2.3. if cell not dividing

9.2.3.1. coiled DNA forms tangled network =chromatin

9.2.4. if cell dividing

9.2.4.1. must keep DNA intact during cell division

9.2.4.2. chromatin become chromosomes

9.2.4.2.1. coiled chromatin becomes even more tightly coiled = chromosomes (can be seen with light microscope)

9.3. DNA strucuture

9.3.1. double helix

9.3.2. nucelotide

9.3.2.1. each phosphate group and sugar molecule with a nitrogen base

9.3.2.2. units making up DNA molecule

9.3.3. 4 nitrogen bases

9.3.3.1. adenosine - thymine

9.3.3.2. cytosine - guanine

9.3.3.3. weak hydrogen bond between base pairs

9.3.4. view diagram

9.4. Replication of DNA

9.4.1. undergoing process between cell division.

9.4.2. results in formation fo new DNA mol tht are identical = form exact replicas of themselves

9.4.3. process

9.4.3.1. 2 linked chains of DNA mol seperate

9.4.3.2. easy = weak hydrogen bond between bases

9.4.3.3. each seperated section = contain half original info= serve as templates for nucleotides tht will form other new half ( A-T, C-G)

9.5. Role of DNA

9.6. nuclei of human cell

9.6.1. 46 DNA mol

9.6.2. DNA mol contain genes

9.6.2.1. section of mol

9.6.2.2. contain genetic code

9.6.2.3. determine structure & activities of cell

10. Circulatory system

10.1. main internal transport system

10.2. link between cells inside body (require certain requirements) and environment outside body (supplies requirements)

10.3. special organs

10.3.1. extract requirements from environment

10.3.1.1. Digestive system = absorb nutrients

10.3.1.2. respiratory system= absorb oxygen

10.3.2. pass waste from body to environment

10.3.2.1. respiratory system = excrete CO2

10.3.2.2. Kidneys = excrete wastes

10.4. Blood

10.4.1. Transport link between cells of all the body

10.4.2. Functions

10.4.2.1. Transport O2, nutrients to all cells of body

10.4.2.2. transport CO2, other wastes products away from cells

10.4.2.3. Transport hormones to cells

10.4.2.4. maintain PH of body fluids

10.4.2.5. Distribute heat = maintain body temp

10.4.2.6. maintain water content, ion concentration of body fluids

10.4.2.7. protect against disease-causing micro-organisms

10.4.2.8. prevent blood loss = clotting when vessels damaged

10.4.3. Made of...

10.4.3.1. plasma

10.4.3.1.1. liquid part

10.4.3.1.2. 55% of blood volume

10.4.3.1.3. 91% H20

10.4.3.1.4. rest made of dissolved substances

10.4.3.2. formed elements

10.4.3.2.1. cells or cell fragments

10.4.3.2.2. 45% of blood volume

10.4.3.2.3. red blood cells (erythrocytes)

10.4.3.2.4. white blood cells (leucocytes)

10.4.3.2.5. platelets (thrombocytes)

10.5. transport of oxygen

10.5.1. 3% O2 in blood plasma

10.5.2. 97% in combination with haemoglobin molecules (red blood cells)

10.5.2.1. haemoglobin + oxygen = oxyhaemoglobin

10.5.2.1.1. Hb + O2 = HbO2

10.5.2.1.2. easily broken down to release oxygen

10.5.2.2. when O2 concentration high

10.5.2.2.1. O2 + Hb

10.5.2.2.2. occur in capillaries of lungs

10.5.2.2.3. O2 diffuses into blood from air in air sacs

10.5.2.3. when O2 concentration low

10.5.2.3.1. HbO2 = Hb + O2

10.5.2.3.2. tissue fluid around cells = low O2 concentration as cells continuously use O2

10.5.2.3.3. while flowing through capillaries between cells, red blood cells give up O2, = O2 diffuses into tissue fluid = into cell

10.6. transport of CO2

10.6.1. 3% dissolved in plasma

10.6.2. 22% as carbominohaemoglobin

10.6.2.1. combines with globin part of haemoglobin

10.6.3. 70% as bicarbonate ions

10.6.3.1. CO2 react with H20 = H2CO3 = dissociates into hydrogen ion, bicarbonate ions

10.6.4. as blood flows through capillaries between body cells, CO2 dissolves in plasma = difference in CO2 concentration

10.6.5. In alveoli (air sacs of lungs), surrounded by dense network of capillaries

10.6.5.1. CO2 dissolved in plasma = diffuses out of blood, into air in alveolus

10.6.5.2. carbominohaemoglobin breaks down = CO2 mol released, diffuses into alveolus

10.6.5.3. H ions + bicarbonate ions = form H2CO3 acid = break down under enzyme action = H20 +CO2

10.6.5.3.1. CO2 diffuses into alveolus

10.6.6. CO2 + H20 = H2CO3 = hydrogen ions + bicarbonate ions

10.7. transport of nutrients/ wastes

10.7.1. transported and dissolved in plasma

10.7.2. 4 organic nutrients

10.7.2.1. glucose

10.7.2.2. vitamins

10.7.2.3. amino acids

10.7.2.4. fatty acids / glycerol

10.7.3. 4 important ions (inorganic nutrients)

10.7.3.1. sodium ions

10.7.3.2. calcium

10.7.3.3. pottasium

10.7.3.4. chloride/ iodide

10.7.4. 3 organic wastes

10.7.4.1. urea

10.7.4.2. creatinine

10.7.4.3. urea acid

10.7.4.4. CO2

10.8. blood vessels

10.8.1. arteries

10.8.1.1. carry blood away from heart

10.8.1.2. walls smooth/eastic

10.8.1.3. divide into smaller arteries (arterioles)

10.8.1.4. arteries

10.8.1.4.1. muscles contract, reduce diameter of artery, thus, blood flow to an organ (vasoconstriction)

10.8.1.4.2. Muscle relax = increase diameter of artery = increase blood flow to organ (vasodilation)

10.8.2. capillaries

10.8.2.1. microscopic blood vessels

10.8.2.2. form network that can reach every cell

10.8.2.3. one layer of cell = easy access to surrounding cell

10.8.3. veins

10.8.3.1. carry blood back to body

10.8.3.2. no muscular walls

10.8.3.3. low blood pressure, have valves to prevent back flow

10.8.3.4. divide into smaller veins = venules

10.8.4. when exercise

10.8.4.1. cell respire = more for energy

10.8.4.2. respiration in muscle cell create wastes = CO2 and lactic acid

10.8.4.3. act as vasodilators = increase blood flow = ensure cells supplied with O2 ad nutrients

10.8.4.4. heat released increase blood temperature, increase heart rate

11. Digestive System

11.1. extracts nutrients from food we eat and absorbs them into body for use by cells

11.2. Digestion is process in which carbohydrate, protein and fat mol broken down to products small enough to be absorbed by cells.

11.3. Organs specially structured and arranged = carry out 6 activities

11.3.1. ingestion of food and water

11.3.2. mechanical digestion of food

11.3.3. chemical digestion of food

11.3.4. movement of food along alimentary canal

11.3.5. absorption of digested food and water into blood and lymph

11.3.6. elimination of material that is not absorbed

11.4. Alimentary canal = continuous tube tht runs from mouth to anus

11.5. Study worksheet

11.6. Diagram of villi

11.7. Diet

11.7.1. Affects absorption in alimentary canal

11.7.2. speed of material moving through alimentary canal

11.7.2.1. Size and contents of meal

11.7.3. Material pushed into small intestines more quickly

11.7.3.1. large meal (causes greater stretching of stomach)

11.7.4. Process is slow of movement from stomach to small intestine

11.7.4.1. Consume high protein, high fat content

11.7.5. Alcohol/ caffeine stimulate movements in stomach

11.8. Illnesses

11.8.1. Constipation

11.8.1.1. movements of large intestines reduced, contents remain there too long

11.8.1.2. water is absorbed = faeces become drier, harder than usual

11.8.1.3. Defecation becomes difficult/ painful

11.8.1.4. Due to lack of roughage in diet (cellulose/ insoluble fibre. lack of exercise, emotional problems

11.8.1.4.1. Roughage stimulates movement of alimentary canals

11.8.2. Diarrhoea

11.8.2.1. frequent defecations of watery faeces

11.8.2.2. Due to irritation of small/large intestines = (caused by bacterial or viral infection)

11.8.2.3. Increases peristalsis = contents move through intestines too fast = not enough water absorption

11.8.3. Bowel Cancer

11.8.3.1. uncontrolled growth of cells of walls of large intestines

11.8.3.2. unbalanced diet (high consumption of red and processed meat and low consumption offibre

11.8.3.3. high alcohol consumption/ smoking

11.8.3.4. Overweight, obese, physical inactivity

11.8.4. Coeliac disease

11.8.4.1. cannot tolerate gluten

11.8.4.2. gluten = wheat, rye, barley

11.8.4.3. if eaten= immune system responds = damaging / destroying villi in small intestines

11.8.4.4. Therefore, nutrients can't be absorbed

11.8.4.5. Inherited, symptoms : muscle cramps, joint pain, leg tingling

11.8.5. Importance soluble fibre

11.8.5.1. Sources : fruits, vegetables, soy, barley products

11.8.5.2. Links to low cholesterol in blood

11.8.5.3. decrease = risk of heart diseases, cancer

11.8.5.4. benefit effect on glucose levels

11.8.5.5. fats in intestines trapped by soluble fibre = prevent their absorption by the body

12. Excretery System

12.1. Removal of wastes of metabolism from body

12.2. 4 organs involved in processing and excreting wastes

12.2.1. Lungs

12.2.1.1. Excrete CO2 from body from cells

12.2.2. Liver

12.2.2.1. Process many substances so can be excreted

12.2.2.1.1. detoxifies alcohol/ drugs

12.2.2.1.2. breaks down haemoglobin to bile pigments

12.2.2.1.3. deactivates hormones

12.2.2.2. proteins

12.2.2.2.1. used extensively in body

12.2.2.2.2. built up from amino acids

12.2.2.2.3. used for cell structures, enzymes, antibodies and grandular secretion

12.2.2.2.4. very little is used in energy-releasing processes as long sufficient supply of carbohydrate/ fats

12.2.2.2.5. view protein structure

12.2.2.3. deamination

12.2.2.3.1. process of metabolising proteins to form carbohydrates

12.2.2.3.2. occurs if other energy sources used up

12.2.2.3.3. process = remove amino group (NH2) from amino acid (view diagram)

12.2.2.3.4. because amino group (NH2) converted to Ammonia (NH3) in liver (wastes)

12.2.3. Sweat Glands

12.2.3.1. lower layers of skin

12.2.3.2. Secrete sweat

12.2.3.2.1. largely water = for cooling (500 ML of water/sweat/ some drugs a day)

12.2.3.2.2. by products of metabolism = salts, urea, lactic acid

12.2.3.3. How?

12.2.3.3.1. duct carries sweat from sweat glands

12.2.3.3.2. cells surrounding glands = squeeze sweat to skin surface

12.2.3.4. view diagram

12.2.4. Kidneys

12.2.4.1. principle excretory system organs

12.2.4.2. maintain constant concentration of materials in body fluids

12.2.4.3. remove toxic wastes

12.2.4.3.1. nitrogenous wastes urea

12.2.4.3.2. uric acid

12.2.4.3.3. creatinine

12.2.4.4. review diagram

12.2.4.5. microscopic structure of kidney

12.2.4.5.1. nephron

12.2.4.5.2. urine formation

13. Production of sex cells

13.1. production of sperm/egg

13.1.1. reproductive systems specialise for production of male/female sex cells (gametes)

13.1.2. gametogenesis

13.1.2.1. meiosis results in half chromosome-new cells, developing into gametes (sperm or egg)

13.1.2.2. 2 types

13.1.2.2.1. spermatogenesis

13.1.2.2.2. oogensis

13.1.3. male (spermatozoon) & female (ovum) gametes fuse together at fertilisation = form zygote

13.1.3.1. gametes = have only half the chromosome number of body cells (meiosis)

13.1.4. from zygote = multicelled organism develop

14. New Topic

15. Reproduction cycles & fertillisation

15.1. Ovarian Cycle

15.1.1. Begin at Puberty (11-14) End at menopause (40-45)

15.1.2. The cyclic changes within ovaries (28 days)

15.1.3. 3 stages

15.1.3.1. Ovulation (13-15)

15.1.3.1.1. mature follicle bursts= expels egg

15.1.3.1.2. egg swept into fallopian tubes by current (beating cilia within funnel)

15.1.3.2. Luteal phase (15-28)

15.1.3.2.1. once egg expelled = follicle collapses

15.1.3.2.2. blood within= form clots = absorbed by remaining follicle cells= corpus leteum

15.1.3.2.3. corpus luteum = secretes hormones (unfluence uterine lining)

15.1.3.2.4. 2 alternate endings

15.1.3.3. New Topic

15.2. Menstrual cycle

15.2.1. cyclic changes occuring in ovaries, where the changes in the endometrium are associated with stages in ovarian cycle

15.2.2. endometrium changes = to prepare for developing embryo (egg released at ovulation is fertillised)

15.2.3. stages- view diagram

15.3. sexual intercourse

15.3.1. in order to take place

15.3.1.1. sperm must be deposited in vagina

15.3.1.2. penis must be enlarged and firm (erection)

15.3.1.3. ejaculation must occur, can be accompanied with orgasm

15.3.1.3.1. sexual stimulation of penis = rhythmic contractions of epididymis, vasa deferentia, seminal vesicles, prostate glands propel contents of ducts and glands into urethra then out of body (3ml of semen/250-300mil sperm)

15.3.1.4. female sexually stimulated

15.3.1.4.1. blood fills erectile tissue near vaginal opening = reduce size of vaginal opening = increase stimulation of penis

15.3.1.4.2. arousal = copious secretion of mucus by glands near cervix = lubrication of epithelial lining of vagina = easy entry of penis

15.4. Fertilisation

15.4.1. male ejaculate = sperm released in vagina at entrance to the uterus ( insemination)

15.4.2. Sperm travel through cervix - body of uterus - uterine tubes

15.4.3. - upper portion of uterine tubes reached often within few minutes ( swimming motion of sperm / muscular contraction of uterus & uterine tubes

15.4.4. sperm mortality high = few thousands make out of millions make it to uterine tubes

15.4.5. since ovulation, muscular contraction of uterine tube & beating action of cilia have been transporting egg towards uterus. (fertellisation normally occur in uterine tubes, when egg 1/3 way down tube. )

15.4.6. mature egg surrounded by layer of follicle cells = corona radiata

15.4.7. acid hold cells of corona radiata together= can be loosened = thousands of sperms containing enzymnes on tip surround egg

15.4.8. entrance of 1 sperm into egg = stimulate formation of fertilisation membrane around egg = prevent entrance of anymore sperm

15.4.9. once sperm enter egg = tail absorbed, head move through cytoplasm of egg in form of male pronucleus

15.4.10. entrance of sperm = stimulate secondary oocyte to complete meiosis 2

15.4.11. nucleus of egg develop into female pronucleus = fuse with male pronucleus = form single nucleus = diploid number of chromosomes (zygote) = fertilisation complete

16. Follicular Phase (0-13)

16.1. development of the follicle

16.2. puberty begins = cells forming wall of primary follicle enlarge & divide = create layer of cells around egg

16.3. cell secrete = create fluid filled space around follicular cells = force egg to edge of follicle (secondary follicle)

16.4. fluid cavity continue growing = follicle enlarge = pushes way to ovary surface = mature follicle

17. New Topic

18. New Topic