This mindmap demonstrates the progression of ideas surrounding leadership. Following the number sequence shows that trait theories (1) were early ideas. Then researchers saw 2 dominate BEHAVIOURS (2) that managers displayed - a focus on building relationships or a focus on get the job done. Later, researchers noted that these 2 behaviours were most appropriate SITUATIONS (3). More recent research identifies TRANSFORMATIONAL (4) leadership as having a huge impact. Today, there is a wide variety of views on leadership. It is considered one of the most important aspects of organisation success.
A sample of a recent view on leader traits. Traits that Impact on Leaders’ Effectiveness (Kirkpatrick & Locke, 1991) • Drive, desire for achievement, level of energy, persistence • Leadership Motivation, desire to lead, willingness to assume responsibility, seeking power to achieve goals • Honesty & Integrity, trustworthiness • Self-confidence, can withstand setbacks, ability to make hard decisions and stand by them, emotionally stable • Cognitive Ability, able to analyse situations accurately, problem solving skills • Knowledge, gather and assimilate extensive information
still used today
helps idenitfy potential leaders
can be hard to teach
Uni of Iowa
Uni of Michigan
Ohio State Uni
focus on relationship or job
Transformational empowers followers to achieving better outcomes
Contingency theory - Fiedler
Situation leadership model - Hersey-Blanchard
Leadership behaviour depends on the situation
What is appropriate leadership today?