Civics Concept Map

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Civics Concept Map by Mind Map: Civics Concept Map

1. Citizenship and Government

1.1. Leadership

1.1.1. Laissez-Faire

1.1.1.1. Complete freedom to group

1.1.1.2. Best for groups of trustworthy people

1.1.1.3. Need supervision

1.1.2. Autocratic

1.1.2.1. One person has complete power

1.1.2.2. Not effective when the power is abused.

1.1.2.2.1. Or when the group is over-dependent on leader

1.1.2.3. Effective in emergency situations (need to make a fast decision)

1.1.3. Democratic

1.1.3.1. Everybody is responsible for decision-making

1.1.3.2. Often reaches best solution

1.1.3.3. Usually takes a while to reach a uniform agreement

1.1.3.3.1. e.g. the Keystone Pipeline

1.2. Historical Roots of Law and Democracy

1.2.1. When the authority of the government depends on the people's consent

1.2.2. Our current system was developed over a long period of time

1.2.2.1. Many different previous legal systems from various parts of the world had a role in influencing Canadian Law

1.2.2.1.1. Babylonion - Code of Hammurabi

1.2.2.1.2. Greek

1.2.3. Retribution

1.2.3.1. Punishment considered morally right and fully deserved

1.2.4. Restitution

1.2.4.1. Restoring something lost/stolen to its proper owner

1.2.4.2. Recompense for injury or loss.

1.3. Canada's Political Structure

1.3.1. The Constitution

1.3.1.1. Document that is the framework of how a Canada should be governed and what kind of country it should be

1.3.1.2. Est. 1867 as an act of British Parliament

1.3.1.3. Learned from the US Constitution's mistakes

1.3.1.3.1. Too much power to individual states, too little to the central government - North and South power struggle

1.3.2. A Federal System

1.3.2.1. Different responsibilities for different levels of government

1.3.2.1.1. Federal

1.3.2.1.2. Provincial

1.3.2.1.3. Municipal

1.4. Passing Legislation

1.4.1. Laws come from three sources

1.4.1.1. Constitutional Law

1.4.1.1.1. From the Canadian Constitution

1.4.1.1.2. Both Statute and Common Law must conform to Constitutional Law

1.4.1.1.3. The Constitution limits the government's powers, and goes over the responsibilities of each level of government

1.4.1.2. Statute Law

1.4.1.2.1. From elected government

1.4.1.2.2. If no statute law exists to deal with a situation, common law is used

1.4.1.2.3. Cannot violate the Constitution

1.4.1.3. Common Law

1.4.1.3.1. From past decisions

1.4.1.3.2. Cannot violate the Constitution

1.4.2. Laws start out as bills, which are PROPOSED laws

1.4.2.1. Can be a public (introduced by cabinet member) or private (initiated by citizens, lobby groups...) bill

1.4.2.2. Bills go through three readings, then a vote, then to the Senate to go through the process again

1.4.2.2.1. If a bill passes into law, it goes to the Governor General to be assented in the name of the Queen

1.4.3. Over time, public opinion will change and governments will amend or create laws.

1.5. Electoral Process and Political Parties

1.5.1. Spectrum of Political Beliefs

1.5.1.1. Far left: Communism

1.5.1.1.1. All property owned by country, totalitarian nature, charismatic leader

1.5.1.2. Socialism

1.5.1.2.1. State owns capital and land, uses it to benefit people

1.5.1.3. Liberalism

1.5.1.3.1. Advocates freedom of the individual

1.5.1.4. Conservatism

1.5.1.4.1. Opposes radical change

1.5.1.5. Far Right: Fascism

1.5.1.5.1. Gov't has total control, authoritarian nature, feared leader

1.5.2. The Right to Vote

1.5.2.1. In Canada everyone over the age of 18 has the right to vote

1.5.2.2. Each vote is significant

1.5.2.3. Three levels of gov't, three different types of elections

2. Global Citizenship

2.1. What it is

2.1.1. The Broad Definition

2.1.1.1. international trade and investment

2.1.1.2. using the Earth's environment responsibly

2.1.1.3. ensuring everyone lives in peace

2.1.2. Why it's important to be informed about global matters

2.1.2.1. We are part of an interconnected and interdependent community

2.1.2.1.1. Interconnected - every action coming from every person affects other people

2.1.2.1.2. Interdependent - every person/community/country is dependent on each other

2.1.2.1.3. Global Solidarity

2.1.2.2. Rights and Responsibilities of Global Citizenship

2.1.2.2.1. Convention on the Rights of the Child

2.1.2.2.2. Universal Declaration of Human Rights

2.2. Canada's Global Position

2.2.1. Reputation

2.2.1.1. Canada is considered as quite generous and interested in peacekeeping

2.2.1.1.1. We often take care of human rights violations

2.2.1.1.2. We often aid those who need it

2.3. Examining the News

2.3.1. Looking at world issues is important in being a global citizen

2.3.1.1. We are used to seeing attention-grabbing stories whose origins are not often presented

2.3.1.1.1. Deal with violence, disaster, etc.

2.3.1.1.2. Develop stereotypical views, do not display the full picture

2.4. Contemporary Global Concerns and Non-Governmental Organizations

2.4.1. Active Citizens

2.4.1.1. people who strive to makes changes before problems become more serious

2.4.1.2. Stand up for human rights

2.4.1.2.1. How do they do so?

3. Rights & Responsibilities of Citizenship

3.1. Rights, Responsibilities, and the Charter

3.1.1. The Charter of Rights and Freedoms

3.1.1.1. Applies to all levels of government

3.1.1.2. Does not apply to non-governmental situations

3.1.1.2.1. e.g. private law

3.1.1.3. People can challenge the government in court if they feel their rights have been infringed

3.1.1.4. The Charter guarantees rights and freedoms, but not to an absolute degree - only to reasonable limits

3.1.1.5. Includes our fundamental freedoms

3.1.1.5.1. Freedom of conscience and religion

3.1.1.5.2. Freedom of thought, belief, opinion, and expression

3.1.1.5.3. Freedom of peaceful assembly

3.1.1.5.4. Freedom of association

3.2. Human and International Rights

3.2.1. Stereotypes

3.2.1.1. Oversimplified and untrue notions about a group of people, leading to prejudice

3.2.2. Prejudice

3.2.2.1. Usually unfavourable judgments based on irrelevant and inadequate knowledge

3.2.3. Discrimination

3.2.3.1. Behavior having a negative effect on an individual or group

3.2.3.1.1. Can have to do with race, gender, place of origin, ethnic origin, etc.

3.2.4. Human Rights are here to deal with and prevent discrimination

3.2.4.1. UN formed after WWII to protect HR's and stabilize international relations

3.2.4.1.1. 192 nations joined

3.2.4.2. International Human Rights Protection

3.2.4.2.1. Do not have force of law, the agreements' power comes from public pressure

3.2.4.2.2. e.g. Convention on Rights of the Child

3.2.4.3. Canadian Human Rights Act 1977

3.2.4.3.1. Applies to federal gov'ts and agencies

3.2.4.4. Ontario Human Rights Protection

3.2.4.4.1. Provides legal mechanism to stop discrimination for victims

3.3. Law and Order

3.3.1. Unlike rules, laws cannot be opted out of without punishment

3.3.1.1. Laws dictate our daily activities in an attempt to use reason and fairness to regulate things.

3.3.1.1.1. International Law

3.3.1.1.2. Domestic Law

3.4. Canada's Courts and the Trial Process

3.4.1. Provincial Court System

3.4.1.1. At the bottom of the court tree

3.4.1.2. Tried by judges alone

3.4.1.3. Provinces will divide their courts

3.4.1.3.1. Criminal

3.4.1.3.2. Civil

3.4.1.3.3. Small claims

3.4.1.3.4. Family

3.4.1.4. Preliminary hearing

3.4.1.4.1. Screening to determine if there is enough evidence to put the accused on trial by a higher court

3.4.1.5. Appeal

3.4.1.5.1. ...regarding a summary conviction offence

3.4.1.5.2. regarding an indictable offence

3.4.1.6. Superior Courts

3.4.1.6.1. Highest level of criminal and civil court in a province

3.4.2. Federal Court System

3.4.2.1. Hears claims involving federal government

3.4.2.2. Supreme Court - highest court in Canada

3.4.2.2.1. Cases heard by 5, 7, or 9 judges

3.4.3. Participants

3.4.3.1. Fundamental principles in criminal justice system

3.4.3.1.1. Accused person is innocent until proven guilty

3.4.3.1.2. Guilt must be proven beyond a reasonable doubt

3.4.3.2. Judge

3.4.3.2.1. Interprets the law

3.4.3.2.2. Controls events in the courtroom

3.4.3.3. Crown Counsel (prosecutor)

3.4.3.3.1. Represents gov't's interest

3.4.3.3.2. Tries to prove guilt without a doubt

3.4.3.4. Defence

3.4.3.4.1. the accused/defendant is person charged with the offence

3.4.3.4.2. Defence counsel

3.4.3.5. Witness

3.4.3.5.1. Shares their knowledge of the circumstances surrounding the crime

3.4.3.6. Jury

3.4.3.6.1. Group of ordinary citizens chosen by the Crown and defence counsels

3.4.3.6.2. Look over the case's facts and come up with a verdict of either guilty or not guilty

3.4.3.7. Others

3.4.3.7.1. Court Clerk

3.4.3.7.2. Court Reporter

3.4.3.7.3. Court Security Officer

3.4.3.7.4. Sheriff

3.4.3.7.5. Bailiff

3.5. Sentencing

3.5.1. Happens when someone is found guilty of a crime (judge will impose a sentence - a punishment)

3.5.2. Some goals of sentencing

3.5.2.1. Rehabilitation

3.5.2.1.1. treating an offender's problems that interfere with their ability to be law-abiding and functional citizens

3.5.2.1.2. Recidivism

3.5.2.2. Protecting the public

3.5.2.2.1. Their person, property, and their rights/freedoms

3.5.2.3. Restitution

3.5.2.3.1. Making offenders pay society back to restore the relationship between offender and society

3.5.2.3.2. Community service, payment for damages...

3.5.2.4. Deterring others from committing crimes in the first place

3.5.2.5. Denunciation

3.5.2.5.1. Publicly condemning the actions of the offender

3.5.3. Sentencing Procedures

3.5.3.1. Perspectives must be considered

3.5.3.1.1. The offender

3.5.3.1.2. The victim

3.5.3.1.3. Society

3.5.3.2. Factors will either aggregate or mitigate sentencing decisions

3.5.4. Traditional Sentences

3.5.4.1. Discharges

3.5.4.1.1. Most lenient type

3.5.4.1.2. Releasing the offender

3.5.4.1.3. Absolute Discharge

3.5.4.1.4. Conditional Discharge

3.5.4.2. Probation

3.5.4.2.1. Making the offender prove they can behave in the community

3.5.4.2.2. use of a parole officer

3.5.4.3. Suspended Sentence

3.5.4.3.1. passed judgment that is not carried out as long as the offender meets certain conditions

3.5.4.4. Intermittent Sentence

3.5.4.4.1. prison sentence <90 days that can be served on weekends and at night

3.5.4.4.2. offender serves the time in intervals instead of all at once

3.5.4.4.3. usually given to non-violent offenders

3.5.4.4.4. subject to probation officer when not serving in jail

3.5.4.5. Conditional Sentence

3.5.4.5.1. prison sentence <two years

3.5.4.5.2. can be served in the community

3.5.4.6. Electronic Monitoring

3.5.4.6.1. electronic bracelet that signals to a computer and a remote location

3.5.4.7. Deportation

3.5.4.7.1. If a non-Canadian citizen commits an indictable offence in Canada they can be expelled back to their own country

3.5.4.8. Fines

3.5.4.9. Suspension of Privileges

3.5.4.9.1. e.g. withholding a driver's or firearms license

3.5.4.10. Plea Bargaining

3.5.4.10.1. An agreement between the defence council and the Crown for the defendant to agree to plead guilty, receiving a lesser sentence

3.5.4.11. Incarceration

3.5.4.11.1. Imprisonment for a length of time

3.5.5. The Correctional System

3.5.5.1. Keeping prisoners locked up is expensive

3.5.5.2. Different levels of prison security for provincial and federal correctional systems

3.5.6. Laws and Morality

3.5.6.1. relationship of laws to moral codes can be controversial

3.5.7. Justice

3.5.7.1. Some characteristics

3.5.7.1.1. treat like cases alike and different cases differently

3.5.7.1.2. justice should be impartial - apply to everyone