Civics Concept Map

Get Started. It's Free
or sign up with your email address
Civics Concept Map by Mind Map: Civics Concept Map

1. Citizenship and Government

1.1. Leadership

1.1.1. Laissez-Faire Complete freedom to group Best for groups of trustworthy people Need supervision

1.1.2. Autocratic One person has complete power Not effective when the power is abused. Or when the group is over-dependent on leader Effective in emergency situations (need to make a fast decision)

1.1.3. Democratic Everybody is responsible for decision-making Often reaches best solution Usually takes a while to reach a uniform agreement e.g. the Keystone Pipeline

1.2. Historical Roots of Law and Democracy

1.2.1. When the authority of the government depends on the people's consent

1.2.2. Our current system was developed over a long period of time Many different previous legal systems from various parts of the world had a role in influencing Canadian Law Babylonion - Code of Hammurabi Greek

1.2.3. Retribution Punishment considered morally right and fully deserved

1.2.4. Restitution Restoring something lost/stolen to its proper owner Recompense for injury or loss.

1.3. Canada's Political Structure

1.3.1. The Constitution Document that is the framework of how a Canada should be governed and what kind of country it should be Est. 1867 as an act of British Parliament Learned from the US Constitution's mistakes Too much power to individual states, too little to the central government - North and South power struggle

1.3.2. A Federal System Different responsibilities for different levels of government Federal Provincial Municipal

1.4. Passing Legislation

1.4.1. Laws come from three sources Constitutional Law From the Canadian Constitution Both Statute and Common Law must conform to Constitutional Law The Constitution limits the government's powers, and goes over the responsibilities of each level of government Statute Law From elected government If no statute law exists to deal with a situation, common law is used Cannot violate the Constitution Common Law From past decisions Cannot violate the Constitution

1.4.2. Laws start out as bills, which are PROPOSED laws Can be a public (introduced by cabinet member) or private (initiated by citizens, lobby groups...) bill Bills go through three readings, then a vote, then to the Senate to go through the process again If a bill passes into law, it goes to the Governor General to be assented in the name of the Queen

1.4.3. Over time, public opinion will change and governments will amend or create laws.

1.5. Electoral Process and Political Parties

1.5.1. Spectrum of Political Beliefs Far left: Communism All property owned by country, totalitarian nature, charismatic leader Socialism State owns capital and land, uses it to benefit people Liberalism Advocates freedom of the individual Conservatism Opposes radical change Far Right: Fascism Gov't has total control, authoritarian nature, feared leader

1.5.2. The Right to Vote In Canada everyone over the age of 18 has the right to vote Each vote is significant Three levels of gov't, three different types of elections

2. Global Citizenship

2.1. What it is

2.1.1. The Broad Definition international trade and investment using the Earth's environment responsibly ensuring everyone lives in peace

2.1.2. Why it's important to be informed about global matters We are part of an interconnected and interdependent community Interconnected - every action coming from every person affects other people Interdependent - every person/community/country is dependent on each other Global Solidarity Rights and Responsibilities of Global Citizenship Convention on the Rights of the Child Universal Declaration of Human Rights

2.2. Canada's Global Position

2.2.1. Reputation Canada is considered as quite generous and interested in peacekeeping We often take care of human rights violations We often aid those who need it

2.3. Examining the News

2.3.1. Looking at world issues is important in being a global citizen We are used to seeing attention-grabbing stories whose origins are not often presented Deal with violence, disaster, etc. Develop stereotypical views, do not display the full picture

2.4. Contemporary Global Concerns and Non-Governmental Organizations

2.4.1. Active Citizens people who strive to makes changes before problems become more serious Stand up for human rights How do they do so?

3. Rights & Responsibilities of Citizenship

3.1. Rights, Responsibilities, and the Charter

3.1.1. The Charter of Rights and Freedoms Applies to all levels of government Does not apply to non-governmental situations e.g. private law People can challenge the government in court if they feel their rights have been infringed The Charter guarantees rights and freedoms, but not to an absolute degree - only to reasonable limits Includes our fundamental freedoms Freedom of conscience and religion Freedom of thought, belief, opinion, and expression Freedom of peaceful assembly Freedom of association

3.2. Human and International Rights

3.2.1. Stereotypes Oversimplified and untrue notions about a group of people, leading to prejudice

3.2.2. Prejudice Usually unfavourable judgments based on irrelevant and inadequate knowledge

3.2.3. Discrimination Behavior having a negative effect on an individual or group Can have to do with race, gender, place of origin, ethnic origin, etc.

3.2.4. Human Rights are here to deal with and prevent discrimination UN formed after WWII to protect HR's and stabilize international relations 192 nations joined International Human Rights Protection Do not have force of law, the agreements' power comes from public pressure e.g. Convention on Rights of the Child Canadian Human Rights Act 1977 Applies to federal gov'ts and agencies Ontario Human Rights Protection Provides legal mechanism to stop discrimination for victims

3.3. Law and Order

3.3.1. Unlike rules, laws cannot be opted out of without punishment Laws dictate our daily activities in an attempt to use reason and fairness to regulate things. International Law Domestic Law

3.4. Canada's Courts and the Trial Process

3.4.1. Provincial Court System At the bottom of the court tree Tried by judges alone Provinces will divide their courts Criminal Civil Small claims Family Preliminary hearing Screening to determine if there is enough evidence to put the accused on trial by a higher court Appeal ...regarding a summary conviction offence regarding an indictable offence Superior Courts Highest level of criminal and civil court in a province

3.4.2. Federal Court System Hears claims involving federal government Supreme Court - highest court in Canada Cases heard by 5, 7, or 9 judges

3.4.3. Participants Fundamental principles in criminal justice system Accused person is innocent until proven guilty Guilt must be proven beyond a reasonable doubt Judge Interprets the law Controls events in the courtroom Crown Counsel (prosecutor) Represents gov't's interest Tries to prove guilt without a doubt Defence the accused/defendant is person charged with the offence Defence counsel Witness Shares their knowledge of the circumstances surrounding the crime Jury Group of ordinary citizens chosen by the Crown and defence counsels Look over the case's facts and come up with a verdict of either guilty or not guilty Others Court Clerk Court Reporter Court Security Officer Sheriff Bailiff

3.5. Sentencing

3.5.1. Happens when someone is found guilty of a crime (judge will impose a sentence - a punishment)

3.5.2. Some goals of sentencing Rehabilitation treating an offender's problems that interfere with their ability to be law-abiding and functional citizens Recidivism Protecting the public Their person, property, and their rights/freedoms Restitution Making offenders pay society back to restore the relationship between offender and society Community service, payment for damages... Deterring others from committing crimes in the first place Denunciation Publicly condemning the actions of the offender

3.5.3. Sentencing Procedures Perspectives must be considered The offender The victim Society Factors will either aggregate or mitigate sentencing decisions

3.5.4. Traditional Sentences Discharges Most lenient type Releasing the offender Absolute Discharge Conditional Discharge Probation Making the offender prove they can behave in the community use of a parole officer Suspended Sentence passed judgment that is not carried out as long as the offender meets certain conditions Intermittent Sentence prison sentence <90 days that can be served on weekends and at night offender serves the time in intervals instead of all at once usually given to non-violent offenders subject to probation officer when not serving in jail Conditional Sentence prison sentence <two years can be served in the community Electronic Monitoring electronic bracelet that signals to a computer and a remote location Deportation If a non-Canadian citizen commits an indictable offence in Canada they can be expelled back to their own country Fines Suspension of Privileges e.g. withholding a driver's or firearms license Plea Bargaining An agreement between the defence council and the Crown for the defendant to agree to plead guilty, receiving a lesser sentence Incarceration Imprisonment for a length of time

3.5.5. The Correctional System Keeping prisoners locked up is expensive Different levels of prison security for provincial and federal correctional systems

3.5.6. Laws and Morality relationship of laws to moral codes can be controversial

3.5.7. Justice Some characteristics treat like cases alike and different cases differently justice should be impartial - apply to everyone