Defining Development

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Defining Development by Mind Map: Defining Development

1. Terminology

1.1. LEDC - less economically developed country

1.2. MEDC - More economically developed country

1.3. NIC - newly industrialised country

1.4. LLEDC - least economically developed country

1.5. FCC - former communist country

2. Measuring development

2.1. Social

2.1.1. HDI - Human development index

2.1.1.1. Advantages: gives an overall idea of the actual wealth of a country

2.1.2. Life expectancy

2.1.3. Literacy rates

2.2. Economic

2.2.1. GDP

2.2.1.1. Advantages: Shows the wealth gap

2.2.1.2. Disadvantages: Doesn't show how the wealth is spread. Takes an average. Unreliable?

2.3. Evaluation

2.3.1. West only interested in development of LEDC because it increases their purchasing powers.

2.3.2. Development was seen as a means of increasing the Western "Sphere of influence" as part of the ideological cold war.

3. Millennium Development Goals

3.1. 8 goals created by the UN

3.1.1. eradicate extreme hunger and povery

3.1.2. achieve universal primary education

3.1.3. promote gender equality

3.1.4. reduce child mortality

3.1.5. improve maternal health

3.1.6. combat HIV/AIDS

3.1.7. Ensure environmental sustainability

3.1.8. Develop a global partnership for development

3.2. Criticism

3.2.1. the problems the goals are trying to reduce have been created by poor governance of the leites in the developing nations who have been engaging in corrupt practices and are more conerned with enriching themselves than improving the lives of their people.

3.2.2. More criteria need to be added to the MDGs such as: protecting human dignity, encouragement of religious tolerance and freedom to participate in political affairs.

3.2.3. reflect a desire to impose Western values and instiutions on developing nations in order to persuade them that the industrial capitalist development path is the best possible route to benefit their people.

4. Development or Westernisation?

4.1. Kingsbury et al (2004)

4.2. the focus of the MDG on education and economic success highlights Western values and the ways of thinking at the expense of traditional cultures, implying that the latter are deficient and have little to contribute.

4.3. ethnocentrism

4.3.1. fails to consider that Western values may have little cultural meaning in the developing world.

4.4. fails to consider the alternative models of development rooted in the religious beliefs if people in the developing world.

4.5. Western style democracy

4.5.1. Western models of development generally tend to assume that democratic forms of development are more suitable than communist or socialist models (dismissed as extremist and dangerous).

4.5.2. Evidence that Western agencies (World Bank & IMF) distributed aid in the past on the coniditon that socialist/communist policies were jettisoned.

4.5.2.1. Policies have positive benefits for peeople in developing world such as farmers.