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Water Supply by Mind Map: Water Supply

1. What is water shortage?

1.1. Scarcity

1.1.1. When fresh water availability is lower than 1000 cubic metres

1.2. Vulnerability

1.2.1. When fresh water availability is between 1701 and 2500 cubic metres.

1.3. stress

1.3.1. When fresh water availability is between 1001 and 1700 cubic metre.

1.4. security

1.4.1. There is an adequate and sustainable fresh water for human consumption and use. This happens when fresh water availability is more than 2500 cubic metres

1.5. Definition

1.5.1. Occurs when the level of water shortage exceeds the water supply available.

2. Why water shortage?

2.1. Increasing Demand

2.1.1. Affluence More money Lifestyle

2.1.2. Population growth More uses Domestic Economic

2.2. Decreasing Supply

2.2.1. Uneven distribution/ availibility of water Limited supply of water Naturally water is not available

2.2.2. Climate Climate change Droughts Floods

2.2.3. Water polution Agriculture Industrial Industrialization is beside the river Public landfill River flooded with litter Natural Soil erosion Domestic Sewage Car Impact Fishes/ marine animals die

3. Impact of water shortage

3.1. Will not be enough water for the people to drink

3.2. Will not have enough water to wash clothes

3.3. Will not have enough water to wash and cook food

4. Distribution of water (locations)

4.1. Water footprint

4.1.1. How much water resources are used in the production of a product and in the consumption/use of a product

4.2. Locations facing water shortage

5. Most important water

5.1. Imported H2O

5.1.1. Advantages 2nd national tap It is the main source of water 40% of water from Johor Majority of water comes from here=necessary to meet demad

5.1.2. Disadvantages Contract will end in 2061 They might not want to renew the contract Not enough supply

5.2. Catchment Area

5.2.1. Advantages Rainfall is collected Catchment areas Canals Drains Resevoirs High rainfall Self-reliant Need to provide as we do not need to pay for it Natural sources= frree

5.2.2. Disadvantages When there is little rainfall, cannot collect Demand Land constraint Dependant on climate

5.3. Dealinated H2O

5.3.1. Advantages Technology based water resources Removing salt from seawater Other unlimited supply Ensures high quality drinkable water 25% of water demand will be met (?) SG is surrounded by seawater Self-reliant

5.3.2. Disadvantages Costly Needs technology and equipment Pollution Chemicals and salt Land constraint Impacts on environment Detroys marine life imbalance in salt and water

5.4. NEWater

5.4.1. Advantages 3rd national tap Used water that is purified Ultra clean 1st newater plant opened in 2003 30% current water needed Wants to meet 50% in future Self-reliant Environmentally friendly Cheaper than desalinated water Long term solution

5.4.2. Disadvantages Energy is used Conflict Drinking reused water Expensive Land constraint