MITE6330 Learning design and technology

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MITE6330 Learning design and technology by Mind Map: MITE6330 Learning design and technology

1. introduction to instructional desgin

1.1. instructional desgin

1.1.1. definition

1.1.1.1. The creation of “instructional experiences which make the acquisition of knowledge and skill more efficient, effective, and appealing.” (Merrill, Drake, Lacy, Pratt, (1996)

1.1.2. strcuture

1.1.2.1. tools

1.1.2.1.1. process

1.1.2.1.2. theory

1.1.2.1.3. physical

1.1.2.2. people

1.1.2.2.1. management

1.1.2.2.2. ID teams

1.1.2.2.3. SMEs (subject method expert)

1.1.2.2.4. learners

1.1.2.3. organization

1.1.2.3.1. government

1.1.2.3.2. coporation

1.1.2.3.3. military

1.1.2.3.4. higher education

1.1.2.3.5. K-12

1.1.3. features

1.2. instructional method

1.2.1. moodle

1.2.2. Face-to-face

1.2.2.1. introduction-building

1.2.2.2. discussion-clearing our concept

1.2.2.3. presentation-learning outcomes

1.2.2.4. consolidation-review

1.2.3. online

1.2.4. Experiential learning

1.3. instructional designer

1.3.1. goal

1.3.2. tools

1.3.2.1. abstract tools

1.3.2.2. physical tools

1.3.3. contexts

2. design a product

2.1. analyses

2.1.1. task analyses

2.1.1.1. definition

2.1.1.1.1. how a task or work is actually performed

2.1.1.1.2. clarifies conditions needed for competent performance

2.1.1.1.3. establishes minimum expectations or standards

2.1.1.2. how to conduct task analysis

2.1.1.2.1. convene expert panel

2.1.1.2.2. observation of experts

2.1.1.2.3. interview of experts

2.1.1.2.4. survey of experts

2.1.1.2.5. manuals/books

2.1.1.3. hierarchical task diagram

2.1.1.3.1. based on the assumption that learning is hierarchical

2.1.2. learner analyses

2.1.2.1. common errors

2.1.2.1.1. assume all learners are alike

2.1.2.1.2. assume all learners are like ourselves

2.1.2.1.3. examine diversity but not similarity among learners

2.1.2.2. important assumptions of ALL learners

2.1.2.2.1. Maslow's hierarchy of needs

2.1.2.2.2. adult learners

2.1.2.2.3. children (birth to adolescence)

2.1.3. contextual anlysis

2.1.4. context analyses

2.1.4.1. prior knowledge and prerequisite knowledge

2.1.5. delivery analysis

2.1.6. analysis instructions

2.1.6.1. Wile's model

2.1.6.1.1. external

2.1.6.1.2. internal

2.1.6.2. Mager & Pipe flowchart

2.1.6.2.1. in order to propose possible solutions

2.1.6.2.2. a tool for a fast and quick assessment of the assessment of the areas to zoom into for person, organizational, and operational analysis.

2.1.6.2.3. a tool to think about possible interventions needed to resolve the performance problem

2.1.6.2.4. flowchart

2.1.6.3. readings

2.1.6.3.1. Effective Training: Systems, Strategies and Practices

2.1.6.3.2. incentive system

2.2. Design

2.2.1. Instructional strategy

2.2.1.1. Nine events of instruction

2.2.1.1.1. Introducer

2.2.1.1.2. Application

2.2.1.1.3. Contents

2.2.1.1.4. comment

2.2.1.2. 5 Principles of Instruction

2.2.1.2.1. Introducer

2.2.1.2.2. Content

2.2.1.3. 7 Principles of good teaching

2.2.1.3.1. encourage student-faculty contact

2.2.1.3.2. encourage cooperation among students

2.2.1.3.3. encourage active learning

2.2.1.3.4. give prompt feedback

2.2.1.3.5. emphasize time on task

2.2.1.3.6. communicate high expectations

2.2.1.3.7. respect diverse talents and ways of learning

2.2.2. Learning objectives

2.2.2.1. Differences between learning goals

2.2.2.1.1. • A goal may be defined as a desirable state of affairs. (Gagne, Briggs & Wager, 1992, p.39)

2.2.2.1.2. Learning goals are simply expressions of the general results desired from instruction. Unlike learning objectives, they are not measurable.

2.2.2.1.3. • Mager calls Goals “fuzzies” which need to be transformed into highly specific learning objectives which are concrete and can be observed.

2.2.2.2. Improtance

2.2.2.2.1. To clear communication of what will be learned

2.2.2.2.2. To inform the learner how they will demonstrate their learning

2.2.2.2.3. To communicate expectations to learners

2.2.2.2.4. To provide specifications for instructional products

2.2.2.3. The ABCD approach of writing objectives

2.2.2.3.1. Audience

2.2.2.3.2. Behaviour

2.2.2.3.3. Conditions

2.2.2.3.4. Degree

2.3. development

2.3.1. storyboard

2.3.1.1. definition

2.3.1.1.1. a graphic organizer in the form of illustrations or images

2.3.1.1.2. pre-visualizing a motion picture, animation, motion graphic or interactive media sequence (purpose)

2.3.1.2. steps

2.3.1.2.1. know the course goal

2.3.1.2.2. gather content

2.3.1.2.3. define learning objectives

2.3.1.2.4. create assessment criteria

2.3.1.2.5. use a storyboard template

2.3.1.2.6. pick a design model/method

2.3.1.2.7. choose design elements

2.3.1.2.8. select an authoring tool

2.3.1.3. types

2.3.1.3.1. passive

2.3.1.3.2. active

2.3.1.3.3. interactive

2.3.1.4. examples

2.3.1.4.1. examples offered by Thomas

2.3.1.4.2. storyboarding for instructional design

2.4. implementation

2.4.1. Gantt chart

2.4.1.1. definition

2.4.1.2. usage: for tracking project schedules

2.4.1.3. types

2.4.1.3.1. basic Gantt

2.4.1.3.2. multiple milestones

2.4.1.3.3. daily Gantt

2.4.1.3.4. Baseline Gantt

2.4.1.3.5. Timeline chart

2.4.1.3.6. Summary Gantt

2.4.1.3.7. Spotlight Gantt

2.4.1.3.8. Earned value Gantt

2.4.1.3.9. Gantt with dependencies

2.4.1.3.10. Earned value dashboard Gantt

2.4.1.4. example

2.4.1.5. instruction

2.5. evaluation

2.5.1. The Four-Level Evaluation Training Model

2.5.1.1. introducer

2.5.1.1.1. Donald Kirkpatrick, Professor Emeritus at the University of Wisconsin and past president of the American Society for Training and Development (ASTD)

2.5.1.2. history

2.5.1.2.1. first published Four-Level Training Evaluation Model in 1959, in the US Training and Development Journal

2.5.1.2.2. The model was then updated in 1975, and again in 1994, when Professor Donald published his best-known work, "Evaluating Training Programs."

2.5.1.3. content

2.5.1.3.1. reaction

2.5.1.3.2. learning

2.5.1.3.3. behavior

2.5.1.3.4. results

3. learning theories

3.1. behaviorism

3.1.1. definition

3.1.2. Types of Behavioral Conditioning

3.1.2.1. classical conditioning

3.1.2.2. operant conditioning

3.1.3. Major Thinkers Who Influenced Behaviorism

3.1.3.1. Ivan Pavlov

3.1.3.2. B.F. Skinner

3.1.3.3. Edward Thorndike

3.1.3.4. John B. Waston

3.1.4. comments about behaviorism

3.1.4.1. strengths

3.1.4.1.1. Behaviorism is based on observable behaviors, so it is easier to quantify and collect data and information when conducting research.

3.1.4.1.2. Effective therapeutic techniques such as intensive behavioral intervention, behavior analysis, token economies, and discrete trial training are all rooted in behaviorism. These approaches are often very useful in changing maladaptive or harmful behaviors in both children and adults.

3.1.4.2. Criticisms

3.1.4.2.1. Many critics argue that behaviorism is a one-dimensional approach to understanding human behavior. They suggest that behavioral theories do not account for free will and internal influences such as moods, thoughts, and feelings.

3.1.4.2.2. Behaviorism does not account for other types of learning, especially learning that occurs without the use of reinforcement and punishment.

3.1.4.2.3. People and animals can adapt their behavior when new information is introduced, even if a previous behavior pattern has been established through reinforcement.

3.1.4.2.4. Many critics argue that behaviorism is a one-dimensional approach to understanding human behavior. They suggest that behavioral theories do not account for free will and internal influences such as moods, thoughts, and feelings.

3.1.5. examples

3.1.5.1. postive reinforcement

3.1.5.1.1. Parents often use a reward system when potty training a toddler. M&M candies, stickers, or other small rewards can be used. Each time a child does a desirable behavior – for example, sitting on the potty, having a dry diaper in the morning, or going to the bathroom on the potty – the parent gives the child a reward. The hope is that the child will continue to exhibit the desired behavior because he or she wants to earn the reward, until eventually the behavior becomes a habit.

3.1.5.1.2. Companies offer raises to employees who exhibit excellent performances. The hope of a raise can serve as motivation for employees to do their jobs well.

3.1.5.2. negative reinforcements

3.1.5.2.1. Sarah is in the habit of speeding on her way to work. One morning, she gets stopped by a police officer and given a $275 speeding ticket. After that, she never speeds again; the negative consequence to her behavior of speeding causes her to obey the speed limit, since she never wants to get a speeding ticket again.

3.1.5.2.2. Student-athletes are required to maintain at least a grade of a C in every class in order to participate in their various sports. If a grade drops below a C, the athlete will not be allowed to compete until he or she improves the grade. The negative reinforcement of not being allowed to compete often motives a student to quickly do what is needed to improve his or her grade.

3.2. constructivism

3.2.1. definition

3.2.2. comments about constructivism

3.2.2.1. benefits

3.2.2.1.1. Children learn more, and enjoy learning more when they are actively involved, rather than passive listeners.

3.2.2.1.2. Education works best when it concentrates on thinking and understanding, rather than on rote memorization. Constructivism concentrates on learning how to think and understand.

3.2.2.1.3. Constructivist learning is transferable. In constructivist classrooms, students create organizing principles that they can take with them to other learning settings.

3.2.2.1.4. Constructivism gives students ownership of what they learn, since learning is based on students' questions and explorations, and often the students have a hand in designing the assessments as well.

3.2.2.1.5. By grounding learning activities in an authentic, real-world context, constructivism stimulates and engages students. Students in constructivist classrooms learn to question things and to apply their natural curiousity to the world.

3.2.2.1.6. Constructivism promotes social and communication skills by creating a classroom environment that emphasizes collaboration and exchange of ideas.

3.2.2.2. criticisms

3.2.2.2.1. It's elitist. Critics say that constructivism and other "progressive" educational theories have been most successful with children from privileged backgrounds who are fortunate in having outstanding teachers, committed parents, and rich home environments. They argue that disadvantaged children, lacking such resources, benefit more from more explicit instruction.

3.2.2.2.2. Social constructivism leads to "group think." Critics say the collaborative aspects of constructivist classrooms tend to produce a "tyranny of the majority," in which a few students' voices or interpretations dominate the group's conclusions, and dissenting students are forced to conform to the emerging consensus.

3.2.2.2.3. There is little hard evidence that constructivist methods work. Critics say that constructivists, by rejecting evaluation through testing and other external criteria, have made themselves unaccountable for their students' progress.

3.3. cognitivsm

3.3.1. definition

3.3.2. major thinkers about the theory of cognitivism

3.3.2.1. Willhelm Wundt

3.3.2.2. Jean Piaget

3.4. readings

3.4.1. 30 things about adult learners

3.4.2. brain science

3.4.3. learning theory and online technology

4. ADDIE model

4.1. instructional theories

4.2. introduction

4.2.1. instructional system design model

4.2.2. used by instructional designers and training developers

4.3. content

4.3.1. analyze

4.3.1.1. who is the audience and their characteristics?

4.3.1.2. identify the new behavioral outcome

4.3.1.3. what types of learning constrains exist

4.3.1.4. what are the delivery options

4.3.1.5. what are the online pedagogical considerations

4.3.1.6. what is the timeline for project completion

4.3.2. design

4.3.2.1. learning objectives

4.3.2.2. delivery format

4.3.2.3. activities and exercises

4.3.3. develop

4.3.3.1. create a prototype

4.3.3.2. develop course materials

4.3.3.3. review

4.3.3.4. pilot session

4.3.4. implement

4.3.4.1. facilitators' training

4.3.4.1.1. course curriculum

4.3.4.1.2. learning outcomes

4.3.4.1.3. method of delivery

4.3.4.1.4. testing procedures

4.3.4.2. tools in place

4.3.4.3. observation

4.3.5. evaluate

4.3.5.1. formative evaluation

4.3.5.1.1. present in each stage of the ADDIE process

4.3.5.2. summative evaluation

4.3.5.2.1. specific criterion-related referenced items

4.3.5.2.2. provide opportunities for feedback from users

4.4. weakness

4.4.1. Typical processes require unrealistically comprehensive up-front analysis Most teams respond by doing very little at all and fail to access critical elements

4.4.2. Ignores some political realities. Opportunities are misses, vital resources aren't made available, support is lacking, and targets shift.

4.4.3. Storyboards are ineffective tools for creating, communicating and evaluating design alternatives. Poor designs aren't recognized as such until too late.

4.4.4. Detailed processes become so set that creativity becomes a nuisance.

4.4.5. No accommodation for dealing with faults or good ideas throughput the process.

4.4.6. Learning programs are designed to meet criteria that are measured (schedule, cost, throughput) and fail to focus on identifying behavioral changes

4.4.7. Learning programs are designed to meet criteria that are measured (schedule, cost, throughput) and fail to focus on identifying behavioral changes

5. reference

5.1. Model of process when performance gap is identified - Blanchard, P. N., & Thacker, J. W. (2010). Effective training: Systems, strategies, and practices. Pearson Education, Inc.: New Jersey

5.2. 30 Things We Know for Sure about Adult Learning, Ron and Susan Zemke, Innovation Abstract Vol VI, No 8, March 9, 1984

5.3. Brain Science: Overcoming the Forgetting Curve by Art Kohn : Learning Solutions Magazine, April 10, 2014

5.4. Seven Principles for Good Practice in Undergraduate Education, W. Chickering and Zelda F. Gamson

5.5. Applying "First Principles of Instruction" in a Blended Learning Course, Wing Sum Cheung and Khe Foon Hew

5.6. A Pebble-in-the-Pond Model for Instructional Design, M. David Merill

5.7. Kirkpatrick, Donald L. (1998). Evaluating Training Programs: The Four Levels. Berrett-Koehler Publishers.

5.8. Worthen, Blaine R, James R. Sanders, Jody L. Fitzpatrick (1997). Program Evaluation: Alternative Approaches and Practical Guidelines (Second Edition).Addison, Wesley, Longman, Inc.

5.9. Kirkpatrick, Donald L. (1998). Another Look at Evaluating Training Programs. American Society for Training & Development.

5.10. Sieloff, Debra A. (1999). The Bridge Evaluation Model. International Society for Performance Improvement.

5.11. Kirkpatrick, Donald L. (1998). Another Look at Evaluating Training Programs. American Society for Training & Development.

5.12. Kirkpatrick, Donald L. (1998). Another Look at Evaluating Training Programs. American Society for Training & Development.

5.13. Worthen, Blaine R, James R. Sanders, Jody L. Fitzpatrick (1997). Program Evaluation: Alternative Approaches and Practical Guidelines (Second Edition).Addison, Wesley, Longman, Inc.

5.14. Kirkpatrick, Donald L. (1998). Evaluating Training Programs: The Four Levels. Berrett-Koehler Publishers

6. reflection

7. way forwads

7.1. web 2.0

7.1.1. user control of information

7.1.2. new forms of expression

7.1.3. web as a point of presence

7.1.4. internet-mediated social/collective activities

7.1.5. web as a platform

7.1.6. rich user experiences

7.1.7. Some  speak of media revolution – “we the media” (Dan Gillmor), “voice of crowds”, increased democratization and new citizenship

7.2. podcasting

7.2.1. Method of distributing audio programs or video over the Internet for playback on mobile devices and personal computers

7.2.2. Podcasts are distributed using either the RSS or Atom syndication formats.

7.3. open source

7.3.1. open source

7.3.2. Syndications, design for hackability and remixability

7.3.3. Systems that gets better when more people are using it (and improving it)

7.4. mobile web 2.0

7.4.1. Web services are moving to mobile devices

7.4.2. learning and research benefits

7.5. icloud