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E8: Waste by Mind Map: E8: Waste
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E8: Waste

Methods of Disposal


Convenient and cheap

Causes pollution:, Air;, Ground;, And water.

Ocean Dumping

Source of nutrients

Cheap and convenient

Danger to marine life

Open Dumping

Convenient and cheap

Causes pollution:, Air:, Ground:, And water.


Reduces volume

Provides odourless, stable waste

Products can be used

Can be used to provide power

Expensive to build and operate

Requires energy to burn

Could produce dioxins if not burnt properly.

Produces greenhouse gases.


Provides sustainability


Difficulties in separation of materials


Aluminium, Requires a lot of energy to make from bauxite (raw aluminium extracted from ground)

Steel, Can be collected and melted


Sorted into grades

Made into low quality paper materials such as newspaper and toilet rolls.

Can be added to new paper derived from wood pulp to make partially recycled paper - can be just as high quality as entirely wood pulp derived paper.

Can be composted.


Sorted by colour, then melted.


Broken down by:, Pyrolysis;, Hydrogenation;, Gasification;, Thermal cracking;, And then repolymerised

Can be difficult to separate plastics.

Nuclear Waste




Power stations.

Low level waste

Protective clothing (such as gloves), paper etc that has come into contact with waste.

Usually short half-life

Can be kept in steel and concrete containers until radioactivity is at negligible levels.

Or, can be stored in cooled water (due to heat given off) as it decreases in radioactivity, then filtered through an Ion Exchange Resin, then discharged into the sea.

High Level Waste

Usually from spent fuel rods.

Fuel rods can be reprocessed, to regain much of the radioactive material, which is then used to create more power., About 3%, though, is high level liquid waste., This is dried in a furnace, then mixed with glass., This is solidified in steel tubes that air is allowed to flow around to keep tmperatures cool., The problem comes with storage of the solidified waste, as leaking of radioactivity could cause severe damage to water systems, the environment, and people.

Radioactivity is likely to last for thousands of years.