On War

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On War by Mind Map: On War

1. On the Nature of War

1.1. What is War?

1.1.1. Introduction

1.1.2. Definition

1.1.3. The Maximum Use of Force

1.1.4. The Aim is to Disarm the Enemy

1.1.5. The Maximum Exertion of Strength

1.1.6. Modifications in Practice

1.1.7. War is Never an Isolated Act

1.1.8. War Does Not Consist of a Single Blow

1.1.9. In War the Result is Never Final

1.1.10. The Probabilities of Real Life Replace the Extreme and the Absolute Required by Theory

1.1.11. The Political Object Now Comes to the Fore Again

1.1.12. An Interruption of Military Activity is Not Explained by Anything Yet Said

1.1.13. Only One Consideration Can Suspend Military Action, and It Seems That It Can Never Be Present on More Than One Side

1.1.14. Continuity Would Thus Be Brought About In Military Action Would Again Intensify Everything

1.1.15. Here a Principle of Polarity is Proposed

1.1.16. Attack and Defense Being Things Different in Kind and Unequal in Strength, Polarity Cannot be Applied To Them

1.1.17. The Superiority of Defense Over Attack Often Destroys the Effect of Polarity, and This Explains the Suspension of Military Action

1.1.18. A Second Cause is Imperfect Knowledge of the Situation

1.1.19. Frequent Periods of Inaction Remove Was Still Further From the Realm of the Absolute and Make It Even More a Matter of Assessing Probabilities

1.1.20. Therefore Only the Element of Chance is Needed To Make War a Gamble, And That Element is Never Absent

1.1.21. Not Only Its Objective But Also Its Subjective Nature Makes War a Gamble

1.1.22. How in General This Best Suits Human Nature

1.1.23. But War is Nonetheless a Serious Means to a Serious End: A More Precise Definition of War

1.1.24. War is Merely a Continuation of Policy By Other Means

1.1.25. The Diverse Nature of War

1.1.26. All Wars Can Be Considered Acts of Policy

1.1.27. The Effects of This Point of View On the Understanding of Military History and the Foundations of Theory

1.1.28. The Consequences For Theory "War is more than a true chameleon that slightly adapts its characteristics to the given case. As a total phenomenon its dominant tendencies always make war a paradoxical trinity -- composed of primordial violence, hatred, and emnity, which are to be regarded as a blind natural force; of the play of chance and probability within which the creative spirit is free to roam; and of its element of subordination, as an instrument of policy, which makes it subject to reason alone.:"

1.2. Purpose and Means in War

1.3. On Military Genius

1.3.1. Mind Intelligence Coup d'oeil Determination Presence of Mind Understanding of Terrain Imagination Grasps Policy Inquisitive Comprehensive

1.3.2. Temperment Courageous Strong Willful Energetic Firm Staunch Endurance Balanced Not Obstinate Calm

1.4. On Danger in War

1.5. On Physical Effort in War

1.6. Intelligence in War

1.7. Friction in War

2. On the Theory of War

2.1. Classifications of the Art of War

2.2. On the Theory of Way

2.2.1. Originally the Term "Art of War" Only Designated the Preparation of the Forces

2.2.2. True War Frist Appears in Siege Warfare

2.2.3. Next the Subject Was Touched By Tactics

2.2.4. The Actual Conduct of War Occurred Only Incidentally and Incognito

2.2.5. Reflections on the Events of War Led to the Need for a Theory

2.2.6. Efforts to Formulate a Positive Theory

2.2.7. Limitation to Material Factors

2.2.8. Numerical Superiority

2.2.9. Supply

2.2.10. Base

2.2.11. Interior Lines

2.2.12. All These Attempts are Objectionable

2.2.13. They Exclude Genius from the Rule

2.2.14. Problems Facing Theory When Moral Factors are Involved

2.2.15. Moral Factors Cannot Be Ignored in War

2.2.16. Principle Problems in Formulating a Theory of the Conduct of War

2.2.17. First Property: Moral Forces and Effects: Hostile Feelings

2.2.18. The Effects of Danger: Courage

2.2.19. Extent of the Influence Exercised by Danger

2.2.20. Other Emotional Factors

2.2.21. Intellectual Qualities

2.2.22. The Diversity of Intellectual Quality Results in a Diversity of Roads to the Goal

2.2.23. Second Property: Positive Reaction

2.2.24. Third Property: Uncertainty of All Information

2.2.25. A Positive Doctrine is Unattainable

2.2.26. Alternatives Which Make a Theory Possible: The Difficulties Vary in Magnitude

2.2.27. Theory Should Be Study, Not Doctrine

2.2.28. The Point of View Makes Theory Possible and Eliminates Its Conflict With Reality

2.2.29. Theory Thus Studies the Nature of Ens and Means: Ends and Means in Tactics

2.2.30. Factors that Always Accompany the Application of Means Terrain Time of Day Weather

2.2.31. Ends and Means in Strategy

2.2.32. Factors that Affect the Application of the Means

2.2.33. These Factors for New Means

2.2.34. Strategy Derives the Means and Ends To Br Examined Exclusively From Experience

2.2.35. How Far Should Analysis of Means be Carried?

2.2.36. Substantial Simplification of Knowledge

2.2.37. This Simplification Explains the Rapid Development of Great Commanders and Why Commanders are Not Scholars Earlier Contradictions Accordingly, the Usefulness of all Knowledge was Denied, and Everything was Ascribed to Natural Aptitude

2.2.38. Knowledge Will be Determined by Responsibility

2.2.39. The Knowledge Required in War is Very Simple, But at the Same Time it is Not Easy to Apply

2.2.40. The Nature of Such Knowledge

2.2.41. Knowledge Must Become Capability

2.3. Art of War or Science of War

2.3.1. Usage Is Still Unsettled: Ability and Knowledge: The Object of Science is Knowledge, The Object of Art is Creative Ability

2.3.2. The Difficulty of Separating Perception From Judgement - Art of War

2.3.3. War is An Act of Human Intercourse

2.3.4. Difference

2.4. Method and Routine

2.5. Critical Analysis

2.6. On Historical Examples

3. On Strategy in General

3.1. Strategy

3.1.1. Possible Engagements are to be Regarded as Real Ones Becausse of Their Cinsequences

3.1.2. The Twofold Object of the Engagement

3.1.3. If This View is not Adopted, Other Matters Will Be inaccurately Assessed

3.2. Elements of Strategy

3.3. Moral Factors

3.4. The Principal Moral Elements

3.5. Military Virtues of the Army

3.6. Boldness

3.7. Perseverance

3.8. Superiority of Numbers

3.9. Surprise

3.10. Cunning

3.11. Concentration of Forces in Space

3.12. Unification of Forces in Time

3.13. The Strategic Reserve

3.14. Economy of Force

3.15. The Geometrical Factor

3.16. The Suspension of Action in War

3.17. The Character of Contemporary Warfare

3.18. Tension and Rest: The Dynamic Law In War

4. The Engagement

4.1. Introduction

4.2. The Nature of Battle Today

4.3. The Engagement in General

4.4. The Engagement in General - Continued

4.5. The Significance of the Engagement

4.5.1. Offensive Engagement Destruction of the Enemy's Forces Conquest of a Locality Conquest of an Object

4.5.2. Defensive Engagement Destruction of the Enemy's Forces Defense of a Locality Defense of an Object

4.6. Duration of the Engagement

4.7. Decision of the Engagement

4.8. Mutual Agreement to Fight

4.9. The Battle: Its Decision

4.10. The Battle-Continued: The Effects of Victory

4.11. The Battle Continued: The Use of Battle

4.12. Strategic Means of Exploiting Victory

4.13. Retreat After a Lost Battle

4.14. Night Operations

5. Military Forces

5.1. General Survey

5.1.1. Their Numerical Strength and Organization

5.1.2. Their State When Not in Action

5.1.3. Their Maintenance

5.1.4. Their General Relationship to Country and Terrain

5.2. The Army, The Theater of Operations, the Campaign

5.2.1. Theater of Operations

5.2.2. The Army

5.2.3. The Campaign

5.3. Relative Strength

5.4. Relationship Between Branches of Service

5.5. The Army's Order of Battle

5.6. General Disposition of the Army

5.7. Advance Guard and Outposts

5.8. Operational Use of Advanced Corps

5.9. Camps

5.10. Marches

5.11. Marches - Continued

5.12. Marches - Concluded

5.13. Billets

5.14. Maintenance and Supply

5.15. Base of Operations

5.16. Lines of Communication

5.17. Terrain

5.18. The Command of Heights

6. The Attack

6.1. Attack in Relation to Defense

6.2. The Nature of Strategic Attack

6.3. The Object of the Strategic Attack

6.4. The Diminishing Force of the Attack

6.5. The Culminating Point of the Attack

6.6. Destruction of the Enemy's Forces

6.7. The Offensive Battle

6.8. River Crossings

6.9. Attack on Defensive Positions

6.10. Attack on Entrenched Camps

6.11. Attack on a Mountainous Area

6.12. Attack on Cordons

6.13. Manuever

6.14. Attacks on Swamps, Flooded Areas, and Forests

6.15. Attack on a Theater of War: Seeking a Decision

6.16. Attack on a Theater of War: Not Seeking a Decision

6.17. Attack on Fortresses

6.18. Attacks on Convoys

6.19. Attack on an Enemy Army in Billets

6.20. Diversions

6.21. Invasion

6.22. The Culminating Point of Victory

7. War Plans

7.1. Introduction

7.2. Absolute War and Real War

7.2.1. Interdependence of the Elements of War

7.2.2. Scale of the Military Objective and the Effort to be Made

7.3. Closer Definition of the Military Objective: The Defeat of the Enemy

7.4. Closer Definition of the Military Objective: Limited Aims

7.4.1. The Effect of the Political Aim on the Military Objective

7.4.2. War is an Instrument of Policy

7.5. The Limited Aim: Offensive War

7.6. The Limited Aim: Defensive War

7.7. The Plan of a War Designed to Lead to the Total Defeat of the Enemy

8. Defense

8.1. Attack and Defense

8.1.1. The Concept of Defense

8.1.2. Advantages of Defense

8.2. The Relationship Between Attack and Defense in Tactics

8.3. The Relationship Between Attack and Defense in Strategy

8.4. Convergence of Attack and Divergence of Defense

8.5. The Character of Strategic Defense

8.6. Scope of the Means of Defense

8.7. Interaction Between the Attack and Defense

8.8. Types of Resistance

8.9. The Defensive Battle

8.10. Fortress

8.11. Fortress-Continued

8.12. Defensive Positions

8.13. Fortified Positions and Entrenched Camps

8.14. Flank Positions

8.15. Defensive Mountain Warfare - Continued

8.16. Defensive Mountain Warfare

8.17. Defensive Mountain Warfare - Continued

8.18. Defense of Rivers and Streams

8.19. Defense of Rivers and Streams - Continued

8.19.1. Defense of Swamps

8.19.2. Inudations

8.20. Defense of Forests

8.21. The Cordon

8.22. The Key to the Country

8.23. Operations on a Flank

8.24. Retreat to the Interior of the Country

8.25. The People in Arms

8.26. Defense of a Theater of Operations

8.27. Defense of a Theater of Operations

8.28. Defense of a Theater of Operations: Continued

8.29. Defense of a Theater of Operations: Phased Resistance

8.30. Defense of a Theater of Operations-Concluded: Where a Decision Is Not The Objective