Special Education Categories and Accommodations

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Special Education Categories and Accommodations by Mind Map: Special Education Categories and Accommodations

1. 1. Autism

1.1. Intervention/Modifications

1.1.1. Communication Difficulties Create situations to motivate language use Engage peers or other adults to help the student interact with others Supplement verbal directions to the student with written directions Present instructions to the student at a slower rate Have the student give feedback to the teacher to check for understanding Review new vocabulary with the student/class before beginning a lesson Allow the student time to process information and respond Ensure that the teacher is positioned strategically to engage the student's attention Provide plenty of processing time before repeating or rephrasing a question

1.1.2. Social Interaction Difficulties Use visual "emotional gauge/thermometer" to help the student to process emotions Identify opportunities for the student to work with other students Assign a "typical peer" to participate in a weekly social skills group with the student Use peer modeling for community and classroom skills Pair the student with a "typical" peer/buddy to help carry out social interactions in structured settings Provide structure for the student's talking and interaction Clarify expectations for eye contact in different situations and contexts Role model effective communication by accompanying words with facial expressions, gestures and body language Encourage the student to modulate voice volume and intonation. Encourage "think it, don't say it" when talking is not appropriate

1.1.3. Restrictive Routines/Interests Provide alternative tasks, particularly when the student is sensory overloaded Use buddies/peer assistants to expand the student's interests/activities beyond current routines Tell the student the steps you would like him/her to take before he/she engages in a task Allow the student to have some choices with regard to performing instructional tasks Have the student learn the daily routine by watching peers perform tasks Specify the student's routine for asking questions or describing topics when the student seeks or presents information Apply the student's interests to classroom tasks to improve motivation

1.1.4. Sensory Issues Prepare the student for transitions and deviations from regular routine in order to minimize overstimulation or anxiety caused by a change in the schedule or routine Develop a list of calming and/or stimulating activities and sensory choices for the student to use when over or under-stimulated To control sensory inputs, allow the student to be first or last in line or to leave class early If the student is disruptive due to over-stimulation, move him/her away from the source of stimulation Teach students who use distracting vocalizations or other self-stimulating behaviors to employ other acceptable (less intrusive to others) vocalizations or behaviors Use ear plugs or headphones to diminish auditory stimulation Use leading questions or pictures to help the student articulate and identify over-stimulating emotions and situations Teach simple stress management techniques and relaxation activities Follow instructional work with opportunities to release energy Use visual/picture supports in the form of "rule charts" and directions during distressing, recurring tasks to support the student's self-regulation Use visual supports to prepare the student for changes that typically lead to sensory overload and escalations

1.2. Case study

1.2.1. Academically he is 2 years behind his peers in all subject areas. He is able to think concretely but abstract thinking such as creative writing or problem solving is not tangible. He has a difficult time concentrating for more than 10 mins at a time. He gets side tracked with his thoughts and if he is feeling excited he will engage in repetitive jumping in one spot or run around the classroom. His conversations with his peers are often one sided; he will ask a question multiple times despite hearing the answer and he finds it difficult to listen to others questions. He finds sensory stimulation calming and often is touching his eye lashes or stroking a part of his body.

2. 2. Deaf-blindness

2.1. Intervention/Modifications

2.1.1. Teaching Strategies Individuals who are deafblind will often need touch in order for them to be sure that their partner shares their focus of attention. Exploring objects should be done in a "nondirective" way, allowing the individual who is deafblind to have control The individual may have very slow response times. Therefore, the teacher should allow time for the student to respond. Symbolic communication can be utilized by individuals who are deafblind.

2.1.2. Assistive Technology Computer adaptations Braille translation software Braille printer Screen reader Screen enlargement software Adaptive devices Braille notetakers Optical character reader Electronic braillewriter Telecommunication Devices A telecommunication device for the deaf (TDD)

3. 3. Deafness

3.1. Intervention/Modifications

3.1.1. Amplification Options Personal hearing device Personal FM syste

3.1.2. Assistive Devices TDD TV captioned

3.1.3. Physical Environment Accommodations Specialized lighting Flashing fire alarm

3.1.4. Communication Accommodations Specialized seating arrangements Reduce visual distractions Enhance speech reading conditions Present information in simple structured, sequential manner Frequently check for understanding

3.1.5. Instructional Accommodations Use of visual supplements Captioning or scripts for announcements, television, videos, or movies Speech-to-text translation captioning Buddy system for notes, extra explanations/directions Extra time to complete assignments Note taker

3.1.6. Curricular Modifications Modify reading assignments Modify written assignments Pre-tutor vocabulary Provide supplemental materials to reinforce concepts Alternative curriculum

4. 8. Multiple disabilities

4.1. Intervention/Modifications

4.1.1. Focusing closely on a different students' IEP document and goals each day or half day. Get out their IEP and read through it at the start of the day. Ensure your programming closely aligns with their goals and consider whether you need to do any baselining of behaviours or skills, documentation or reporting tasks for that student.

4.1.2. Use volunteers and aides with care, so that they can safely carry out particular tasks that you set for a student which are labour intensive and require one to one support, but in a way which ensures you are meeting your duty of care requirements.

4.1.3. Use technology such as iPods, taped stories, electronic versions of books available online or music to cater for some students in your group when your hands and mind are busy elsewhere in the room. This is a useful inclusion strategy which can relate directly to literacy and numeracy goals by reinforcing learning or providing additional experiences.

4.1.4. Consider physical movement tasks that can be done without direct teacher support, such as hitting a soft ball suspended from a string from the ceiling, or sorting through shapes in a feely box or manipulating a textured toy or object.

4.1.5. Change your environment regularly so that you and your students get out in the fresh air to complete learning tasks.

4.1.6. Peer buddy supports can be used in any setting and with any activity.

5. 5. Emotional disturbance

5.1. Intervention/Modifications

5.1.1. Extend the amount of time that a student is given to complete a particular task.

5.1.2. Break down assignments into smaller ones. As students finish each mini-assignment, build in reinforcement for task completion. Wait to distribute the next assignment until students have been successful with the current one.

5.1.3. Reduce the number of practice items that a student must complete, once the student has demonstrated mastery.

5.1.4. Follow low-interest activities with high interest activities so that students get breaks from difficult or less interesting activities from time to time.

5.1.5. Plan short review lessons or readiness activities to help orient the student to a particular learning task.

5.2. Case study

5.2.1. There is one child who is seeking a psychologist's help for some irregular behaviors, which are most likely from underlying anxiety. She chews on anything she gets her hands on, she refuses to complete work that she finds challenging, and she often pokes holes in her handouts. Pencils, toys and clothing have been destroyed from either her repeatedly picking at them or chewing on them.

6. 6. Hearing impairment

6.1. Intervention/Modifications

6.1.1. Communication Considerations Look directly at the student and face him or her when communicating or teaching. Say the student’s name or signal their attention in some way before speaking. Assign the student a desk near the front of the classroom, or where you plan to deliver most of your lectures. Speak naturally and clearly. Remember speaking louder won't help. Do not exaggerate your lip movements, but slowing down a little may help some students. Use facial expressions, gestures and body language. Young hearing impaired children often lag in the development of social graces. Consider teaching specific social skills such as joining in to games or conversation, maintaining conversations, and staying on topic. Make sure students are seated near the equipment and can hear the amplified voices.

6.1.2. Visual Strategies Arrange desks in a circular pattern if possible so hearing impaired students can see other students. Consider using a talking stick for group discussions, to help students know who is speaking. Establish a procedure for emergencies, such as writing the word fire on the board. Provide students with an outline of the daily lesson and printed copies of the notes. Consider using posters, charts, flash cards, pictures, manipulatives, graphic organizers, artifacts or any visual items to illustrate concepts.

7. 7. Intellectual disability

7.1. Intervention/Modifications

7.1.1. Classroom and Assignment Accommodations Aassist the student in finding effective peer note-takers from the class. Alternatively, you could provide the student with a copy of your lecture notes or outline. Allow the student to tape record lectures. Allow the student additional time to complete in-class assignments, particularly writing assignments. Provide feedback and assist the student in planning the workflow of assignments. This is especially important with large writing assignments. It may be helpful to break the larger assignment into smaller components with opportunities for draft feedback. Provide assistance with proofreading written work.

7.1.2. Examination Accommodations Extended exam time, typically time and one half to double time. To take exams in a room with reduced distractions. The assistance of a reader, scribe, or word processor for exams. The option of an oral exam. To use spelling and grammar assistive devices for essay exams.

8. 9. Orthopedic impairment

8.1. Intervention/Modifications

8.1.1. Wheelchair-friendly furniture and room arrangement

8.1.2. Special seating arrangements to develop useful posture and movements

8.1.3. Instruction focused on development of gross and fine motor skills

8.1.4. Securing suitable augmentative communication and other assistive devices

8.1.5. Awareness of medical condition and its affect on the student (such as getting tired quickly)

8.1.6. Classrooms, labs and field trips in accessible locations, using accessible transportation

9. 10. Other health impairment

9.1. Intervention/Modifications

9.1.1. Medications kept at school

9.1.2. Rest times through the school day

9.1.3. A reduction in work load to lessen fatigue

9.1.4. Assistive technology

9.1.5. Ergonomic work stations

9.1.6. Two sets of books (one at school and one at home)

9.1.7. Note takers

9.1.8. Scribe

9.1.9. Trained aides to assist with medical-related needs such as g-tube feedings, toileting, wheelchair transfers, etc.

10. 11. Specific learning disability

10.1. Intervention/Modifications

10.1.1. Assist the student in finding effective peer note-takers from the class. Alternatively, you could provide the student with a copy of your lecture notes or outline.

10.1.2. Allow the student to tape record lectures.

10.1.3. Aallow the student additional time to complete in-class assignments, particularly writing assignments.

10.1.4. Provide feedback and assist the student in planning the workflow of assignments. This is especially important with large writing assignments. It may be helpful to break the larger assignment into smaller components with opportunities for draft feedback.

10.1.5. Provide assistance with proofreading written work.

10.1.6. Alternative testing arrangements/locations.

10.1.7. Concise oral instructions, clear written instructions and well organized visual aids.

11. 12. Speech or language impairment

11.1. Intervention/Modifications

11.1.1. Cue the student to listen and attend and use clear communication.

11.1.2. Reduce the amount and complexity of materials where appropriate - break into small, achievable steps.

11.1.3. Orient student to topic before commencing instruction.

11.1.4. Teach the vocabulary of instruction, such as draw, underline, circle, analyse, brainstorm, classify, compare.

11.1.5. Explicitly reflect on communication success/failure.

11.1.6. Plan and rehearse presentations.

11.1.7. Provide an outline of what is to be learnt - focus on key concepts.

11.1.8. Use teamwork for task completion with a range of responsibilities within the student team such as recorder, designer, store person...

11.1.9. Teach use of organisers such as colour coding, pictorial labels, visual timetables and sequences, now/later charts.

11.1.10. Plan access to rewarding activities during the day.

11.1.11. Prepare for transition and change. Use explicit topic change signals.

11.1.12. Use vocabulary guides: key words broken into syllables, definitions.

12. 13. Traumatic brain injury

12.1. Intervention/Modifications

12.1.1. Select a meaningful goal or skill the student will need to learn and present it at the level of the student.

12.1.2. Allow additional time to complete in-class assignments.

12.1.3. Provide student with instructor’s notes or help student obtain quality notes from other students.

12.1.4. Provide preferential seating at or near the front of the classroom.

12.1.5. Avoid placing student in high pressure situations.

12.1.6. Provide for completion of tests in a quiet, individual environment with the goal of minimizing distractions.

12.1.7. Give clearly stated task directions (limit the number of steps) and ask the student to repeat or paraphrase the directions to ensure understanding.

12.1.8. Break tasks into small steps and demonstrate each step.

12.1.9. Use verbal praise and encouragement frequently.

12.1.10. Limit requests to only two or three at a time and give requests that the student is capable of following.

13. 14. Visual impairment

13.1. Intervention/Modifications

13.1.1. Assistive Technology Screen magnification or reading software Text to speech software Type & Speak or Braille & Speak device Voice recognition software

13.1.2. Classroom and Instructional Modifications Use specific directions in relation to the student's body orientation. Provide notes, handouts, assignments and other printed material by audiotape, in Braille, or with magnified print and enhanced images. Carefully describe important visual occurrences of learning activities. Verbally spell any new or technical words. This will help not only the student with visual impairments, but also other students. Use real objects for three-dimensional representations when possible. Allow the student to use a tape recorder for recording lectures, class discussions, and presentations. Clearly present assignments and their goals to students during review time. Review assignment instructions orally.

14. 4. Developmental delay

14.1. Intervention/Modifications

14.1.1. Physical Development Plan physical activities for times when the student has the most energy. Provide simple, fun obstacle courses that the student is capable of completing. Use songs with finger plays to develop fine motor skills. Place objects in student’s hand to hold and feel. Plan daily physical activities, and take students outside to run, climb and jump around. Model and use activities with drawing and writing tools.

14.1.2. Cognitive Development Use the student’s preferences and interests to build lessons Allow student time to complete tasks and practice skills at own pace. Acknowledge level of achievement by being specific. Break down tasks into smaller steps. Demonstrate steps, and then have student repeat the steps, one at a time. Show a picture when presenting new information verbally. Set a routine so student knows what to expect.

14.1.3. Communication Development Use large clear pictures to reinforce what you are saying. Speak slowly and deliberately. Identify and establish functional communication systems for students who are non-verbal. Label areas in the room with words and pictures. Use sequencing cards to teach order of events.

14.1.4. Social and Emotional Development Use strategies to assist student in separating from parent. Set a routine in saying goodbye Value and acknowledge student’s efforts. Provide opportunities for students to play in proximity to one another. Work to expand the child’s repertoire of socially mediated reinforcers Explore feelings through use of play. Ask students to imagine how their behavior might affect others. When dealing with conflict, explain what happened in as few words as possible and use a calm, not-angry voice.

14.1.5. Adaptive Behavior Explicitly teach life skills related to daily living and self-care. Break down each skill into steps. Use visual schedules with pictures / icons to demonstrate each step. Plan experiences that are relevant to the child’s world. Find ways to practice personal care and self-help skills Provide opportunities for students to practice asking for help, feeding themselves, dressing, washing hands, toileting, and locating personal items.

14.2. Case study

14.2.1. He is 2 years older than his peers in his classroom. His hands are malformed which impairs his ability to write. He is able to read text at a grade appropriate level but is at below grade level comprehension. In mathematics he is on target, but he has a hard time learning new concepts.