Types of Assessment

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Types of Assessment by Mind Map: Types of Assessment

1. Diagnostic

1.1. Definition: "Diagnostic assessment provides a way for teachers to chart a course of action, or map out a route, using existing knowledge to build upon" (Just Science Now).

1.1.1. Advantages- Allows teachers to see the gaps in knowledge, or misconceptions a student has. Disadvantages - Typically are more time consuming to implement as assess, they cannot be practiced on a daily basis.

1.1.1.1. Diagnostic testing is an assessment FOR learning because the results will determine the lesson planning of the teacher, or the placement of the student.

1.1.1.1.1. An example of diagnostic testing in a secondary ELA classroom might be a grammar quiz at the beginning of the year so the teacher can see what the student's have already learned, and which areas need more time and attention.

2. Formative

2.1. Definition: "Formative assessments occur throughout the learning process. They provide multiple opportunities for students to demonstrate attainment of identified targeted goals without concerns about grading," (Just Science Now).

2.1.1. Advantages - They give the teacher and students quick immediate feedback about where they are and where they need to be. Disadvantages - Since it is a lower-stakes assessment, teachers may not get a student's full effort and demonstration of understanding.

2.1.1.1. This is an assessment FOR learning, because formative assessments are designed to give the data that informs the progression of the lesson or unit.

2.1.1.1.1. An example of formative assessment in a secondary ELA classroom might be asking the students to write an exit ticket about a lesson you plan to teach the following day.

3. Summative

3.1. Definition: "Summative assessment is a high-stakes type of assessment for the purpose of making final judgments about student achievement and instructional effectiveness" (Just Science Now).

3.1.1. Advantages - Gives the teacher great data on the effectiveness of the lessons taught and the student's ability to master the content. Disadvantages - Is a less flexible form of assessment and typically doesn't allow the student to continue their growth after the assessment feedback.

3.1.1.1. This is an assessment OF learning because the main goal of summative assessments is to determine the final data point of a student's understanding about a topic.

3.1.1.1.1. An example of a summative assessment in a secondary ELA might be an multiple choice exam about a novel unit we just completed to see how much of the content the student's retained.

4. Performance Based

4.1. Definition: "Performance-based learning and assessment represent a set of strategies for the acquisition and application of knowledge, skills, and work habits through the performance of tasks that are meaningful and engaging to students," (Hibbard, 1996).

4.1.1. Advantages - The assessment challenges the student to use "higher-order thinking" and show that they can apply the skill they have learned. Disadvantages - This seems like it would require a bit of time and attention to plan as a teacher.

4.1.1.1. This is an example of an assessment OF learning, because you are judging whether the students can apply the skill that you have just taught (however, I think any summative assessment could easily become a formative one if you thought the content needed more time and attention).

4.1.1.1.1. An example of this in a secondary ELA classroom might be to ask the students to write a persuasive letter to someone (a parent, business owner, etc.) asking them to change something, after learning about rhetorical strategies.

5. High Stakes

5.1. Definition: "A high-stakes test is any test used to make important decisions about students, educators, schools, or districts, most commonly for the purpose of accountability—i.e., the attempt by federal, state, or local government agencies and school administrators to ensure that students are enrolled in effective schools and being taught by effective teachers," (Hidden curriculum 2014).

5.1.1. Advantages - Gives officials data to see which schools are thriving and which school are struggling. Disadvantages - Data isn't always accurate or reflective of how a school, student, or teacher is doing. The tests don't take into account all the other factors that go into an education. They are expensive for the government and stressful for everyone involved.

5.1.1.1. This is an example of an assessment OF learning, because they are solely meant to provide data.

5.1.1.1.1. An example of high-stakes testing in a secondary ELA class would be the PARCC English Content Knowledge Test.

6. Portfolio

6.1. Definition: "Portfolio assessment is an evaluation tool used to document student learning through a series of student-developed artifacts," (Portfolio Assessment 2003).

6.1.1. Advantages - It shows long term growth and can be an alternative to high-stakes testing. Disadvantages - It can be a more subjective measure of growth than a standardized test if there isn't a clear criteria set.

6.1.1.1. This is an example of an assessment OF learning, because it is a final product that shows the student's growth over time.

6.1.1.1.1. An example of a portfolio in a secondary ELA classroom might be a showcase portfolio of the student's best writing throughout the year.

7. Authentic

7.1. Definition: "A form of assessment in which students are asked to perform real-world tasks that demonstrate meaningful application of essential knowledge and skills," (Mueller, 2014).

7.1.1. Advantages - Helps students develop real-world skills that will help them in their life outside education. Disadvantages - It is sometimes difficult to assess all of the content areas in an "authentic" way.

7.1.1.1. This could be an example OF or FOR learning, because a summative or formative assessment could be framed in an "authentic" or "traditional" way.

7.1.1.1.1. An example of an authentic assessment in a secondary ELA classroom might be to ask the students to write a cover letter to apply for a real or imaginary job. This would be a real world skill that they could apply later on.

8. Self Assessment

8.1. Definition: "The ability to be a realistic judge of one’s own performance" (Cornell).

8.1.1. Advantages- Is a quick and efficient form of providing feedback, it encourages students to take ownership of their learning, it encourages the skills of self-reflection. Disadvantages - Teachers may not receive reliable, unbiased feedback from students.

8.1.1.1. This is an example of an assessment FOR learning, because it serves as a place for students to reflect not only on how they are doing, but how they can grow and improve.

8.1.1.1.1. An example of self reflection in a secondary ELA classroom might be to ask student to self-reflect on the work they did in a group project.

9. Peer Assessment

9.1. Definition: "Peer assessment allows instructors to share the evaluation of assignments with their students. It is grounded in theories of active learning (Piaget, ’71), adult learning (Cross, ’81) and social constructionism (Vygotsky, ’62)" (Cornell).

9.1.1. Advantages - Saves the teacher time in assessment, gives students the opportunity to practice assessment skills, empowers students to take ownership of their learning (Cornell), and it encourages conversation. Disadvantages - Students may not give their peers reliable feedback, teachers may not gain unbiased data.

9.1.1.1. This is an assessment FOR learning, because peer review is a highly biased process it can only help to inform the students how to proceed in their learning, not serve as a summative assessment.

9.1.1.1.1. An example of peer review assessment for a secondary ELA classroom might be to trade papers and edit each others papers for content, spelling, and grammar.

10. Work Cited

10.1. Cornell (n.d.). Peer-Assessment. Retrieved June 01, 2016, from https://www.cte.cornell.edu/teaching-ideas/assessing-student-learning/peer-assessment.html#1 Hibbard, M. (1996). Chapter 1. What is Performance-Based Learning and Assessment, and Why is it Important? Retrieved June 01, 2016, from http://www.ascd.org/publications/books/196021/chapters/What_is_Performance-Based_Learning_and_Assessment,_and_Why_is_it_Important¢.aspx Hidden curriculum (2014). In S. Abbott (Ed.), The glossary of education reform. Retrieved from http://edglossary.org/hidden-curriculum Just Science Now. (2016). Retrieved June 01, 2016, from http://www.justsciencenow.com/assessment/ Mueller, J. (2014). What is Authentic Assessment? (Authentic Assessment Toolbox). Retrieved June 01, 2016, from http://jfmueller.faculty.noctrl.edu/toolbox/whatisit.htm Portfolio Assessment. (2003). Retrieved June 01, 2016, from http://www.education.com/reference/article/portfolio-assessment/