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Sustainablity by Mind Map: Sustainablity

1. Aspects

1.1. Economic

1.1.1. Consistent, Profitable Growth

1.1.2. Risk Management

1.1.3. Total Shareholder Return

1.2. Social

1.2.1. Respect for the Individual

1.2.2. Equality Opportunity

1.2.3. Diversity

1.2.4. Outreach Programmes

1.2.5. Human Rights

1.3. Enviromental

1.3.1. Permit & License Compliance

1.3.2. Emissions to Air

1.3.3. Water/ Chemical Usage & Discharge

1.3.4. Bio-diversity Management

2. How

2.1. Sustainable Design

2.1.1. Environmental Engineering

2.1.2. Green Engineering 12 Principles 1. Non-hazardous input & output 2. Prevent waste 3. Seperations & purifications operations 4. Maximize mass,energy and temporal efficiency 5. Output pulled > input pushed 6. Embedded entropy and complexity viewed as an investment 7. Durability not immortality 8. Design flaw = unnecessary capacity/capability 9. Minimize material diversity 10. Include integration of interconnectivity 11. Include designing for performance 12. Based on renewable and readily available inputs

3. Types

3.1. Sustainable Energy

3.1.1. Total Gas Produced Carbon Dioxide ( 77%) Electricity and Heat Land use change Transportation Methane (14%) Agriculture Waste Nitrous Oxide (8%) Agriculture

3.1.2. Energy Used Petroleum Coal Natural Gas Cement Production

3.1.3. Types Renewable Biomass energy Wind energy Ocean energy Hydropower energy Solar energy Geothermal energy

3.1.4. Efficiency Households Commercial Building Transport

3.2. Sustainable Built Enviroment

3.2.1. Sustainable buildings Design Sick Building Green building Materials Timber Mudbrick Strawbale Timbercrete Rapidwall Brick Rammed Earth Cities and Urban environment Ecological footprint Carbon Cropland Grazingland Forest Built-up land Fishing ground Sprawl Characteristic Consequences Solution

3.3. Sustainable Transportation

3.3.1. Land Cars Advantages Disadvantages Alternatives Bicycle Advantages Disadvantages Public transport Buses Trains Fuels Diesel Petrol Alternatives fuel

3.4. Sustainable Water Use

3.4.1. Water function Body function - Health Habitat - Aquatic ecosystems Carrier - Erosion, pollutant transport Biomass production - food, timber, biofuels Socio-economic Production - Income raising, energy ( hydropower, cooling)

3.4.2. Global water use Agriculture Industrial Domestic Reservoirs

3.4.3. Water footprint Green water (Rain water) Blue water (Irrigation water) Grey water (Fresh water to dillute pollution)

3.4.4. Increasing water supply Groundwater supply Advantages Disadvantages Build more dams Usage Positives Negatives Desalination Processes Positives Negatives Stormwater harvesting Process Advantages Disadvantages Reused/recycled water Purpose Rainwater tanks Collection and recycling system Material Benefits

3.4.5. Decreasing water demand Solutions Reducing irrigation water waste Improving household efficiency Positives Same volume of water supplied has larger beneficial impact Water waste reduced to minimum Cost savings Negatives Efficiency measures can be initially expensive Resistance bu users Targets Rural Urban Price controls Positives Negatives Legislation Positives Negatives

4. Impact

4.1. Climate Change

4.1.1. Evidence Direct Rise of Land and Ocean Temperatures Rise of Sea Levels Higher green gas concentration Indirect Spring comes earlier Species migrating poleward and upward Tree-lines shifting polewards and upwards

4.1.2. Natural Driver Solar irradiance stabile (stabile), Temperature still Increase Sunspot activity decline (cooling), Temperature still Increase More Volcanic Activities (cooling), Temperature still Increase

4.1.3. Impacts Health Weather related mortality Infectious diseases Air-quality respiratory illness Agriculture Falling crop yields Irrigation demands Forest Less forest composition Geographic range of forest decline Forest health and productivity decline Water Resources Water supply (decline) Water quality (decline) Competition of water Coastal Areas Erosion of beaches Inundation of coastal lands Additional cost to protect coastal communities Species and Natural Areas Lost of habitat and species Cyrosphere : diminishing glaciers

4.1.4. What can we do? Change our behavior Awareness (education) Acknowledgement Action Change technology Improve energy efficiency Reduce waste Use recycled contents in new products Eliminate toxic components Change the fuel

5. Engineers Role

5.1. Sustainable Engineering Design Criteria

5.1.1. Impact on people (society)

5.1.2. Impact on the planet (environment)

5.2. Traditional Engineering Design Criteria

5.2.1. Function

5.2.2. Cost

5.2.3. Safety