Social Construction of the News

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Social Construction of the News by Mind Map: Social Construction of the News

1. Marxism: Traditional Marxists believe that power and control in the media lie with the ruling class, including the sate and the owners of the media. Owners create relationships with as they share the interest of maintaining power and promoting their interests and the owners increase their profits. The ruling class manipulate the content of the news to maintain their position of power. Traditional Marxists see that the construction of news under control of the owners is used to present capitalism in a positive light- preventing the working class from seeing the real inequalities of the capitalist system. This results in the view that the news is used to maintain false class-consciousness.

1.1. Traditional Marxists are criticised for not taking into account the role of media professionals in the construction of news. Also, that the see an over conspiratorial view of the role of owners.

2. Glasgow University Media Group: Collected findings from using the research method of content analysis and discovered that television news is constructed in a way that reflects the journalist's bias view of the world. The news presents those in authority more positively and those that challenge authority negatively. Presenting stories for the view of the powerful (Hierarchy of Credibility) and using language and camera angles to manipulate the viewers perception.

2.1. Philo (1999) Identified 3 factors which may affect whether media messages are accepted or rejected: 1.Audience member's direct experience of the issue in question. 2. Use of logic when understanding the issue and 3. The values of the audience affect the way the receive the message.

3. Pluralism: This view is often expressed by media professionals. They see it as a supply and demand, that media professionals will be aware of their audiences' interests and will construct the news around this. Any bias in the media is said to come from the media wishing to represent different viewpoints from which the audience can make a selection. It also comes from technical and bureaucratic factors e.g. limited time and space to present info.

3.1. Media represents one view, due to most media professionals being white middle-aged and middle-class men. Increase use of News Agencies means that the same stories are being sold to a number of different Newspapers and TV News channels. Consumers are told the illusion that the internet provides diverse information however 4500 news sources on the internet relied on just four sources.

4. New node

5. Tunstall and Palmer's research (1991) which looked at media owners in Europe, provided evidence which suggested that the owners used their television chnanels and newspapers to 'deliver partisan support at national elections'

6. Thussu (2007) Argued that Murdoch promotes a news agenda that emphasies ' an obsessive interest in glamour, crime and celebrity culture'

7. Neo-Marxism: They see that the media reinforces hegemony, through the shared culture, norms and values of Journalist's from white, middle class backgrounds. They reinforce the view of the powerful in society, as a result this shapes the decisions when constructing the news including the stories to be seleceted and the way they are presented. This is not a deliberate attempt to manipulate the audience, it is just the journalist's worldview. The news is seen as representing ideas of the ruling class and ignoring and/or criticising alternative views which do not feature in the eyes of the media professionals.

7.1. Neo- Marxists fail to recognise the growing number of media professionals who are women and/or from ethnic minorities. Also don't recognise the large number of digital news channels and the fact that the internet can provide a broad range of views