Categories of Disability according to IDEA

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Categories of Disability according to IDEA by Mind Map: Categories of Disability according to IDEA

1. Visual impairment, including blindness

1.1. Interventions

1.1.1. support sensorial learning - feeling, smelling, hearing

1.1.2. provide books in braille and/or with large clear print, depending on degree of visual impairment

1.1.3. seat children so that they can hear well, avoiding areas of harsh light.

1.1.4. Ensure classroom layout is clear, uncluttered, logical and consistent. Seating plans should not be changed

1.1.5. read out loud what is written on the board

1.1.6. students can produce tactile products for their school assignments (eg tactile maps for geography)

1.2. Assistive technology

1.2.1. screen reading and screen magnification

1.2.2. Braille displays / Braille keyboards

1.2.3. audiobooks, podcasts and coursework in audio format

1.2.4. text-to-speech software

1.2.5. use of smartphones in class

1.2.6. retinal implants (bionic eyes) can restore some level of vision

2. Traumatic brain injury

2.1. Interventions

2.1.1. Give directions one step at a time. For tasks with many steps, it helps to give the student written directions.

2.1.2. Show the student how to perform new tasks. Give examples to go with new ideas and concepts.

2.1.3. Have consistent routines. This helps the student know what to expect. If the routine is going to change, let the student know ahead of time.

2.1.4. Check to make sure that the student has actually learned the new skill. Give the student lots of opportunities to practice the new skill.

2.1.5. Show the student how to use an assignment book and a daily schedule. This helps the student get organized.

2.1.6. Realize that the student may get tired quickly. Let the student rest as needed. Reduce distractions.

2.1.7. Keep in touch with the student’s parents. Share information about how the student is doing at home and at school.

2.1.8. Be flexible about expectations. Be patient. Maximize the student’s chances for success.

2.2. Assistive technology

2.2.1. automated alerts to remind students about things they need to remember (eg meetings or taking medicine)

2.2.2. scheduling / to-do apps

2.2.3. online homework/coursework managers - teachers can create tasks and the software shows the course content and task deadlines

2.3. Case study

2.3.1. Josh was an 11-year-old 6th grader who was severely injured in a motor vehicle accident and sustained brain haemorrhage, facial fractures and a right humerus fracture. After his period of hospital rehabilitation he continued to receive outpatient care 2-3 hours per week. Prior to Josh’s return to school, the principal, Josh’s teachers, parents and school psychologist met and created a plan to accommodate his needs at his current level of impairment. Six weeks after his injury Josh continued to have cognitive problems in memory, information-processing speed and executive functioning. Although his verbal and reading skills remained relatively strong, his motor skills were slowed and he fatigued easily. Based on this assessment the school team developed accommodations: Josh would return to school 2hrs per day, gradually increasing his attendance to all day. He would take breaks as needed and check in with the psychologist at the start of each day. Teachers would seat him in the front of the classroom, surrounded by quiet helpful students. Josh received extra time to complete assignments and tests, and could dictate his answers instead of writing. The teacher and Josh developed a “take 5” plan for him to take a break when he became frustrated or overloaded.

3. Speech or language impairment

3.1. Interventions

3.1.1. Explain things many times and in many different ways

3.1.2. When you give instructions, be deliberate and use few and accurate words, and make simple sentences. Allow time for the meaning of the words to “sink in.”

3.1.3. use different media when explaining a topic and allow students to use different media when demonstrating their knowledge (e.g. writing or dancing or acting)

3.1.4. experiment with singing and music as a way for students to learn and communicate

3.2. Assistive technology

3.2.1. text-to-speech translators

3.2.2. iPads to use as digital “picture boards”

4. Specific learning disability

4.1. Dyscalculia

4.1.1. Student has difficulties learning the most basic aspect of arithmetic skills.

4.1.2. Difficulty receiving, comprehending and producing quantitative and spatial information (physical location of objects, metric relationship between objects)

4.1.3. Students may have difficulty understanding simple number concepts

4.2. Dysgraphia

4.2.1. Difficulty expressing thoughts in words and writing

4.2.2. Causes the student’s writing to be distorted or incorrect - e.g. inappropriately sized or spaced letters

4.3. Dyslexia

4.3.1. Difficulties in the learning process for literacy (and sometimes numeracy) and have problems with reading, writing and spelling

4.3.2. Student can experience difficulties in sequencing (letters / words in the correct order), speed of processing, memory skills

4.4. Dyspraxia

4.4.1. Impairment or immaturity of the organization of movement

4.4.2. Students often appearing clumsy - gross and fine motor skills (related to balance and co-ordination) and fine motor skills (relating to manipulation of objects) are hard to learn and difficult to retain and generalise.

4.4.3. Writing is particularly difficult and time consuming.

4.5. Interventions

4.5.1. Explain things many times and in many different ways

4.5.2. Guide the children about how to tackle tasks systematically.

4.5.3. When you give instructions, be deliberate and use few and accurate words, and make simple sentences. Allow time for the meaning of the words to “sink in.”

4.5.4. Try to evaluate written assignments together with the child. If possible, focus on what the child has done right (content, spelling, grammar, sentence structure). Select some of the main errors and concentrate on those, instead of overwhelming the child with corrections.

4.5.5. Be generous with praise (honest praise) and encouragement when the child is successful, shows progress and masters new skills, as well as when s/he is working very hard (even if the expected results are not met).

4.6. Assistive technology

4.6.1. Reading guides - plastic strip for reading so student doesn’t lose their place

4.6.2. Apps that assist with spelling and writing

4.6.3. Reading software that uses colours and spacing to make text more clear

4.6.4. Word prediction software (minimises amount of typing required)

4.7. Case study

4.7.1. Ellie is an 11-year-old fifth grader who is friendly and well liked by others, but somewhat disorganised, forgetful, and often distracted, especially when doing her homework or chores at home. In spite of high average cognitive abilities, Ellie has experienced academic difficulties in reading and writing since second grade. She has been diagnosed with a Specific Learning Disability after a period of testing and observation. Her cognitive deficits related to slower processing speed, working memory, and executive functions have affected the acquisition of reading and writing skills. Additionally, results related to her executive dysfunction suggest probable Attention Deficit Disorder, Predominantly Inattentive Type. To foster better reading and writing outcomes, Ellie needs progress monitoring and remediation of her basic speech, reading and writing skills. Reading-comprehension strategies should be taught using text that is at her independent reading level. Teachers can provide additional time for her to answer questions orally and to complete class assignments related to new learning. She should learn memory strategies, including ways to organise information, to build memory span, to add visual imagery, and to determine when verbal rehearsal is beneficial and when a different approach is required.

5. Other health impairment

5.1. Interventions

5.1.1. Allow children with ADHD to move while learning - integrate motion into most learning activities (eg reading while walking around)

5.1.2. allow students to respond orally instead of in writing

5.1.3. give students a checklist of what needs to be completed each day

5.1.4. ensure students have a structure - arrange things so that class is predictable. Give students calm, organised routines

5.1.5. students can benefit from “scaffolding” - forming a bridge between what students already know and what they cannot do on their own. These bridges are referred to as “scaffolds.” They can include charts, pictures and cue cards.

5.1.6. ensure that students are easily able to catch up on work they’ve missed through being absent for medical reasons

5.2. Assistive technology

5.2.1. reading guides - plastic strip for reading so student doesn’t lose their place

5.2.2. audio / video recorder - to capture what the teacher says in class so the student can listen to it again at home

5.2.3. timers - to help students with pacing

5.2.4. online homework/coursework managers - teachers can create homework tasks and the software shows what is due and when

6. Orthopaedic impairment

6.1. Interventions

6.1.1. the classroom should be set up to facilitate movement and minimise discomfort (e.g. wide paths between desks, adjustable desk height)

6.1.2. tasks that require repetitive physical activity / periods of standing should be avoided

6.1.3. group work should be encouraged so that students can share their strengths

6.1.4. schedules should be set up to allow necessary physical therapy and periods of exercise.

6.2. Assistive technology

6.2.1. Eye tracking or head pointer hardware and accompanying software, to allow the user to move and control a mouse pointer with their eyes or head movements

6.2.2. Joysticks, mouth sticks, trackballs, switches, one handed and chorded keyboards, large key keyboards, and other adaptive hardware allow the user to use alternative input devices to interact with a computer.

6.3. Case study

6.3.1. Murod is a 6-year-old boy from Dushanbe, Tajikistan, who has just been enrolled in an inclusive kindergarten in the outskirts of the city. Murod has cerebral palsy and needs a wheelchair for mobility, so to make the kindergarten more accessible, a ramp has been built. Murod needs a lot of exercise. During both class and recreation, he will practice walking and have basic physiotherapy. One of Murod’s friends has ADHD. He has a lot of energy and needs to move around more than the other children in the class. For this reason, he often helps out when Murod needs exercise. Learning, playing and doing things together is therefore good both for Murod and for all his classmates.

7. Multiple disabilities

7.1. Interventions

7.1.1. curriculum should involve multiple types of learning and multiple sensory learning experiences

7.1.2. classroom and curriculum should follow the principles of inclusive design Equitable Use Flexibility in Use Simple and Intuitive Use Perceptible Information Tolerance for Error Low Physical Effort Appropriate Size and Space

7.1.3. physical classroom structure should accommodate physical disabilities (eg clear paths for wheelchairs or visually impaired students

7.2. Assistive technology

7.2.1. appropriate combination of assistive technology for each impairment (e.g. eye tracking computer control for deafness with physical impairment)

8. Hearing Impairment

8.1. Interventions:

8.1.1. Reduce unnecessary noise in the classroom

8.1.2. Organize the classroom so that children are sitting in a U shape, so students can see each other, which will make it easier for kids with hearing impairment to use sign language, read lips and understand mimics, and participate in discussions and classroom activities.

8.1.3. Use a combination of oral (speech, lip reading and residual hearing) and manual communication (sign language and fingerspelling).

8.1.4. Look at the child (with hearing impairment) while speaking to her/him, speak slowly and clearly, be consistent with language

8.2. Assistive Technology

8.2.1. captioning on all video used in class

8.2.2. standard hearing aids

8.2.3. visual alerts - creates visual / vibration alerts for sounds in class (ie school bell)

8.2.4. frequency modulation (FM) systems can reduce background noise in the classroom and amplify what the teacher says. The teacher wears a microphone that broadcasts either to speakers around the room or to a personal receiver worn by the student.

9. Emotional Disturbance

9.1. Interventions

9.1.1. measures should be taken to ensure the classroom is a safe space for all students

9.1.2. structured teaching to ensure a calm class routine for the student

9.1.3. teachers should praise students for their achievements and for working towards their goals; aim for a higher number of praise statements than blame statements

9.1.4. peer assistance for short periods through the day can help with socialisation (high-low pairings)

9.2. Assistive technology

9.2.1. Student can use their smartphone to listen to music or audio recordings when feeling stressed out in class

10. Developmental Delay

10.1. Interventions

10.1.1. Divide skill development into small steps and allow for slow progression.

10.1.2. Make frequent repetitions.

10.1.3. Give a lot of praise and motivation.

10.2. Assistive technology

10.2.1. Speech-to-text or text-to-speech translators can help when verbal or writing skills are lacking

10.2.2. gamification of repetitive learning tasks (educational computer games)

11. Deafness

11.1. Interventions

11.1.1. students must develop language skills. Using lip-reading and signing at the same time aids learning - teacher can learn some simple signs to use when explaining the tasks

11.1.2. Look at the child (with hearing impairment) while speaking to her/him, speak slowly and clearly, be consistent with language

11.1.3. note: sign language is a separate language, with its own grammar and sentence structure - this may affect deaf students’ ability to learn reading and writing at the same pace as other children

11.2. Assistive technology

11.2.1. speech-to-text translators

11.2.2. captioning on all video used in class

11.2.3. cochlear implants to restore hearing

11.2.4. visual alerts - creates visual / vibration alerts for sounds in class (ie school bell)

12. Deaf-blindness

12.1. Interventions

12.1.1. If the child has residual vision and/or hearing, we need to try to make use of it to create communication and encourage learning, development and participation.

12.1.2. make our hands available to the child, next to hers/ his, and allow the child to use our hands, rather than us directing her/his hands.

12.1.3. follow the child’s lead - acknowledge and try to interpret the communication efforts of the child before we can expect the child to understand formal signs.

12.2. Assistive technology

12.2.1. speech-to-text translators can be connected to a Braille display

12.2.2. image recognition software can analyse images and describe them

13. Autism

13.1. social understanding and behaviour problems

13.1.1. understanding reationships and boundaries of relationships

13.1.2. managing unstructured parts of the day

13.1.3. working cooperatively

13.1.4. understanding situations, people, places that they have not experienced themselves

13.1.5. understanding their sense of self

13.1.6. understanding cause and effect

13.2. social communication problems

13.2.1. difficulty processing verbal and non-verbal communication

13.2.2. irony, jokes and sarcasm

13.2.3. social use of language

13.2.4. literal interpretation

13.2.5. body language, facial expression and gesture

13.2.6. have differing sensitivity to the senses (eg hypersensitivity to particular sounds)

13.3. rigidity of thinking and difficulties with social imagination

13.3.1. time concepts

13.3.2. empathy

13.3.3. generalisation

13.4. Interventions

13.4.1. specialist teacher who keeps up to date with recent ASD developments and strategies

13.4.2. Ensure that children have individual learning plans that are tailored to meet their needs.

13.4.3. help children to generalise skills learnt in one setting to other situations/settings.

13.4.4. structured teaching to ensure a calm class routine for the student

13.4.5. speech and language therapy, social skills therapy and occupational therapy as required

13.5. Assistive technology

13.5.1. digital communication boards (students can point to a picture and the board will read out what the student wants to say)

13.5.2. software to help the nonverbal student learn to read and acquire other necessary skills

14. Intellectual disability

14.1. Interventions

14.1.1. use simple language and repeat instructions frequently

14.1.2. Demonstrate the steps in a task, and have student perform the steps, one at a time.

14.1.3. keep distractions and transitions to a minimum

14.1.4. Develop a procedure for the student to ask for help (e.g. cue card, raising hand).

14.1.5. Use visual or other sensory aids alongside verbal explanations

14.2. Assistive technology

14.2.1. Educational games can help, by bringing fun into the repetition that is necessary for student learning

14.2.2. Use of educational videos with entertaining graphics