Middle East Issues By Austin, Emily and Nathaniel

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Middle East Issues By Austin, Emily and Nathaniel by Mind Map: Middle East Issues By Austin, Emily and Nathaniel

1. Retaining fresh water is a huge problem in the Middle East

1.1. “The Middle East has numerous struggles with its current water resources, and the region needs more than one solution to generate an optimistic environmental position for the future.“

1.1.1. This shows that the Middle East needs to find solutions with their current problem, which is extremely severe.

1.2. “The United Arab Emirates, located on the Arabian Peninsula, is famous for its luxurious cities filled with lavish resorts, shopping, and attractions...in reality, however, the UAE is confronted with a serious depletion of their available water resources.”

1.2.1. This shows that the UAE is using too much water, which causes the serious water depletion.

1.2.2. Are they overusing their water resources?

1.3. “Water resources are becoming increasingly scarce, especially for the millions there who already lack access to sanitary water. “

1.3.1. This shows that the water in the Middle East is gradually decreasing, which is a bane for the people who are already lacking clean water.

2. The oil shares among Arab countries are unfair.

2.1. "The Arab world’s oil is unevenly shared. Saudi Arabia alone holds the most of all reserves. Just eight Arab countries have actually grown rich from energy exports, though some of them spectacularly so: in the tiny emirate of Qatar some 14% of households are dollar millionaires, a higher proportion than in any other country in the world.

2.1.1. This shows that many of the oil shares go to Qatar, making the other countries poorer and not as rich.

2.2. Just eight Arab countries have actually grown rich from energy exports, though some of them spectacularly so: in the tiny emirate of Qatar some 14% of households are dollar millionaires, a higher proportion than in any other country in the world.

2.2.1. This shows that only certain countries get the benefits of money, so the oil shares are not spread evenly.

2.3. "Divided among its 250,000 citizens (the other 85% of Qatar’s population of 2.1 million are foreign workers and are not counted because they are not citizens), the tiny country’s Gross Domestic Product (the value of all the goods and services Qatar produces) comes to $700,000 per person. In Jordan, which does not have oil the GDP per person is $4,945.13 (2012)."

2.3.1. This shows that two countries share oil unfairly, clearly because the GDPs are dramatically different.

2.4. Targets from this problem are in Goal 8 of the Global Goals: Decent Work & Economic Growth

2.4.1. A target is: "Sustain per capita economic growth in accordance with national circumstances and, in particular, at least 7 per cent gross domestic product growth per annum in the least developed countries " This will help because the GDP and wealth of many will start growing.

2.4.2. Another target is: "Achieve higher levels of economic productivity through diversification, technological upgrading and innovation, including through a focus on high-value added and labour-intensive sectors" This will help because more oil can be mined and therefore more money is earned.

3. The people are affected by not being able to retain fresh water because if their is not a lot of fresh water, then people will go thirsty or contract diseases from drinking non-purified water

3.1. "In reality, however, the UAE is confronted with a serious depletion of their available water resources. A report from the Emirates Industrial Bank in 2005 said that the UAE had the highest per capita consumption of water in the world. Additionally, for the past thirty years the water table of this region has dropped about one meter per year. At this current rate, the UAE will deplete its natural freshwater resources in about fifty years."

3.2. "For example, Jordan's average freshwater withdrawal is less than ten percent of Portugal's average, despite being the same size."

3.2.1. This shows that Jordan's average water production is less than anywhere near the amount that is required to sustain the population.

3.3. The water scarcity level for most of the Middle East is classified by the UN as "Physical Water Scarcity" or "Approaching Physical Water Scarcity", according ot a map made in 2013 http://www.un.org/waterforlifedecade/images/scarcity/2013_scarcity_graph_2.png

4. One solution to this problem is doing an even better job of enforcing the global goals, the 8th global goal is "clean water and sanitation." If we could better enforce these goals, and supported UN charities we could add more purification stations so they can clean more

4.1. Another goal is the 14th goal, "Life Below Water". This is because desalination plants dump the salt into the water, affecting nearby marine life.

4.1.1. Therefore, using the Global Goals, the world can be supported, and they can solve these problems.

4.1.2. Marine life is also in danger of oil spills, because oil is such a big industry in the Middle East.

4.1.3. A target is: "By 2030, we'll have reduced the pollution in our oceans."

4.2. Some targets for these goals are:

4.2.1. By 2030, everyone will have safe water to drink.

4.2.2. By 2020, protect and restore water-related ecosystems, including mountains, forests, wetlands, rivers, aquifers and lakes

4.2.3. By 2030, substantially increase water-use efficiency across all sectors and ensure sustainable withdrawals and supply of freshwater to address water scarcity and substantially reduce the number of people suffering from water scarcity

5. The region is affected because no people would be able to grow food because their was not enough water, this would be espically bad for the people that rely on farming for their food and source of income.

5.1. http://www.mapcruzin.com/free-maps-middle-east/middle_east_rainfall_1973.jpg

5.1.1. This shows that in most of the Middle East, there is not many available crops at the time the map was created.

5.2. If there were farmers on the Arabian Peninsula, they would not get any food, because there is no rainfall, and also no real source of income. Therefore, oil becomes a more prominent source of income, because farming is not a very good idea.

6. Oil can affect a region because it can make a country or countries rich. For example Iran they have a lot of oil, and to tap it out of the ground it costs about $3 american dollars, here in America, it costs way more!! Middle eastern countries get a lot of money and a economical boost when dealing with the U.S, because most of our cars and other transportation methods and power run on oil products

6.1. "Oil and natural gas are Iran's most important exports, accounting for 82 percent of the country's export revenues."

6.1.1. "Proved oil reserves in Iran, according to its government, rank fifth largest in the world at approximately 150 billion barrels as of 2014, although it ranks third if Canadian reserves of unconventional oil are excluded."

7. Oil can affect people because it can get people involved in wars, oil is a limited resource that many people want. For example Iraq invaded Kuwait in the 1990s because they wanted more of this resource.

7.1. The Iran and Kuwaiti war was not the only war that was over oil, but it was certainly the biggest- and in the end the the Iraqis ended up lighting all the oil on fire.