Ownership and Control of the media.
by Jake Taylor
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Ownership and Control of the media.
Concentration is when the media is owned by a small number
of organisations. Bid media companies have been buying
smaller ones and merging with others, this leads to a narrow
range of views being expressed throughout the media.
Vertical integration is a trend towards all the stages in production,
distribution being owned by one company. An example of it would be
buying the company that make the paper, buying the printers and then the
transporters that deliver them. The disney company is a prime example of
This involves taking over or merging with other companies in the same
section of the media. The reduces competition and gives greater control
of the market for the product in question. Rupert Murdoch is a example
of this as his company; News Corp owns a variety of different
Diversification is when a media company takes over a variety of different
companies and even branches out outside the media. This means they are
made up from a variety of companies from a number of different areas.
The biggest media company in the world was merged when AOL and
Transnational ownership is like globalisation, whereby companies
operate on a global market so are being advertise and are producing
all round the world. Viacom is an example of this as it owns a
number of film companies and over 150 television networks
The recent trend of synergy links to vertical integration and diversification.
Large media companies can now bring together various aspects of their
business to develop a range of connected products. Time Warner owns the
rights to batman meaning it could produce and advertise the film as well as
bring out merchandise.
Traditional Marxists believe that power and control in the
media lie within the hands of the ruling class. The ruling
class asserts it's ideas through the media which society
accepts as normal and fair.
Miliband (1969) argues that the ruling class uses the media
to portray capitalism in a positive way. The proletariat then
accept these values of the capitalist system even though the
have no interest in their class.
Marxists also believe that owners of companies intervene with the day to
day running of their companies. There is evidence of Rupert murdoch doing
this, such as when one of his papers were going to release a story on china
portraying it in a negative light, Rupert murdoch stop it from being
published as he was currently in talks with a chinese media company.
Neo Marxist update believe control of the media isn't just
down to class it also depends on gender, age and ethnicity.
Neo marxists use the term Hegemony to describe the
dominance of a particular set of ideas throughout the media.
Neo Marxists believe the people who have ownership and
control over the media are often white, old, middle class
males, meaning only their ideas and views on the world get
published by the media.
Neo Marxists also believe the media portrays a false sense of reality.
Such as Faircloughs study of CRIME WATCH in which the programme
presents the police and public working together as one, but ignores
those sections of society who feel the police do not attend to their
Pluralism refers to there being a choice throughout the media, and that
there isn't one ideology published throughout. Media professional are seen
as acting in favour of the public and giving them what they want. They will
be from a range of backgrounds and therefore can express a wide variety
In terms of control pluralists see the audience as
having complete control of the media as they decide
what they want, and if they don't like it won't be